#### Lookalike Disambiguation: Improving Face Identification Performance at Top Ranks

Thomas Swearingen, Arun Ross

Auto-TLDR; Lookalike Face Identification Using a Disambiguator for Lookalike Images

A face identification system compares an unknown input probe image to a gallery of face images labeled with identities in order to determine the identity of the probe image. The result of identification is a ranked match list with the most similar gallery face image at the top (rank 1) and the least similar gallery face image at the bottom. In many systems, the top ranked gallery images may look very similar to the probe image as well as to each other and can sometimes result in the misidentification of the probe image. Such similar looking faces pertaining to different identities are referred to as lookalike faces. We hypothesize that a matcher specifically trained to disambiguate lookalike face images and combined with a regular face matcher may improve overall identification performance. This work proposes reranking the initial ranked match list using a disambiguator especially for lookalike face pairs. This work also evaluates schemes to select gallery images in the initial ranked match list that should be re-ranked. Experiments on the challenging TinyFace dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the closed-set identification accuracy of a state-of-the-art face matcher.

## Similar papers

#### Identifying Missing Children: Face Age-Progression Via Deep Feature Aging

Debayan Deb, Divyansh Aggarwal, Anil Jain

Auto-TLDR; Aging Face Features for Missing Children Identification

Given a face image of a recovered child at probe-age, we search a gallery of missing children with known identities and gallery-ages at which they were either lost or stolen in an attempt to unite the recovered child with his family. We propose a feature aging module that can age-progress deep face features output by a face matcher to improve the recognition accuracy of age-separated child face images. In addition, the feature aging module guides age-progression in the image space such that synthesized aged gallery faces can be utilized to further enhance cross-age face matching accuracy of any commodity face matcher. For time lapses larger than 10 years (the missing child is recovered after 10 or more years), the proposed age-progression module improves the closed-set identification accuracy of CosFace from 60.72% to 66.12% on a child celebrity dataset, namely ITWCC. The proposed method also outperforms state-of-the-art approaches with a rank-1 identification rate of 95.91%, compared to 94.91%, on a public aging dataset, FG-NET, and 99.58%, compared to 99.50%, on CACD-VS. These results suggest that aging face features enhances the ability to identify young children who are possible victims of child trafficking or abduction.

#### One-Shot Representational Learning for Joint Biometric and Device Authentication

Sudipta Banerjee, Arun Ross

Auto-TLDR; Joint Biometric and Device Recognition from a Single Biometric Image

In this work, we propose a method to simultaneously perform (i) biometric recognition (\textit{i.e.}, identify the individual), and (ii) device recognition, (\textit{i.e.}, identify the device) from a single biometric image, say, a face image, using a one-shot schema. Such a joint recognition scheme can be useful in devices such as smartphones for enhancing security as well as privacy. We propose to automatically learn a joint representation that encapsulates both biometric-specific and sensor-specific features. We evaluate the proposed approach using iris, face and periocular images acquired using near-infrared iris sensors and smartphone cameras. Experiments conducted using 14,451 images from 13 sensors resulted in a rank-1 identification accuracy of upto 99.81\% and a verification accuracy of upto 100\% at a false match rate of 1\%.

#### How Unique Is a Face: An Investigative Study

Michal Balazia, S L Happy, Francois Bremond, Antitza Dantcheva

Auto-TLDR; Uniqueness of Face Recognition: Exploring the Impact of Factors such as image resolution, feature representation, database size, age and gender

Face recognition has been widely accepted as a means of identification in applications ranging from border control to security in the banking sector. Surprisingly, while widely accepted, we still lack the understanding of the uniqueness or distinctiveness of face as a biometric characteristic. In this work, we study the impact of factors such as image resolution, feature representation, database size, age and gender on uniqueness denoted by the Kullback-Leibler divergence between genuine and impostor distributions. Towards understanding the impact, we present experimental results on the datasets AT&T, LFW, IMDb-Face, as well as ND-TWINS, with the feature extraction algorithms VGGFace, VGG16, ResNet50, InceptionV3, MobileNet and DenseNet121, that reveal the quantitative impact of the named factors. While these are early results, our findings indicate the need for a better understanding of the concept of biometric uniqueness and its implication on face recognition.

#### Multi-Level Deep Learning Vehicle Re-Identification Using Ranked-Based Loss Functions

Eleni Kamenou, Jesus Martinez-Del-Rincon, Paul Miller, Patricia Devlin - Hill

Auto-TLDR; Multi-Level Re-identification Network for Vehicle Re-Identification

Identifying vehicles across a network of cameras with non-overlapping fields of view remains a challenging research problem due to scene occlusions, significant inter-class similarity and intra-class variability. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end multi-level re-identification network that is capable of successfully projecting same identity vehicles closer to one another in the embedding space, compared to vehicles of different identities. Robust feature representations are obtained by combining features at multiple levels of the network. As for the learning process, we employ a recent state-of-the-art structured metric learning loss function previously applied to other retrieval problems and adjust it to the vehicle re-identification task. Furthermore, we explore the cases of image-to-image, image-to-video and video-to-video similarity metric. Finally, we evaluate our system and achieve great performance on two large-scale publicly available datasets, CityFlow-ReID and VeRi-776. Compared to most existing state-of-art approaches, our approach is simpler and more straightforward, utilizing only identity-level annotations, while avoiding post-processing the ranking results (re-ranking) at the testing phase.

#### Detection of Makeup Presentation Attacks Based on Deep Face Representations

Christian Rathgeb, Pawel Drozdowski, Christoph Busch

Auto-TLDR; An Attack Detection Scheme for Face Recognition Using Makeup Presentation Attacks

Facial cosmetics have the ability to substantially alter the facial appearance, which can negatively affect the decisions of a face recognition. In addition, it was recently shown that the application of makeup can be abused to launch so-called makeup presentation attacks. In such attacks, the attacker might apply heavy makeup in order to achieve the facial appearance of a target subject for the purpose of impersonation. In this work, we assess the vulnerability of a COTS face recognition system to makeup presentation attacks employing the publicly available Makeup Induced Face Spoofing (MIFS) database. It is shown that makeup presentation attacks might seriously impact the security of the face recognition system. Further, we propose an attack detection scheme which distinguishes makeup presentation attacks from genuine authentication attempts by analysing differences in deep face representations obtained from potential makeup presentation attacks and corresponding target face images. The proposed detection system employs a machine learning-based classifier, which is trained with synthetically generated makeup presentation attacks utilizing a generative adversarial network for facial makeup transfer in conjunction with image warping. Experimental evaluations conducted using the MIFS database reveal a detection equal error rate of 0.7% for the task of separating genuine authentication attempts from makeup presentation attacks.

#### ClusterFace: Joint Clustering and Classification for Set-Based Face Recognition

Samadhi Poornima Kumarasinghe Wickrama Arachchilage, Ebroul Izquierdo

Auto-TLDR; Joint Clustering and Classification for Face Recognition in the Wild

Deep learning technology has enabled successful modeling of complex facial features when high quality images are available. Nonetheless, accurate modeling and recognition of human faces in real world scenarios 'on the wild' or under adverse conditions remains an open problem. When unconstrained faces are mapped into deep features, variations such as illumination, pose, occlusion, etc., can create inconsistencies in the resultant feature space. Hence, deriving conclusions based on direct associations could lead to degraded performance. This rises the requirement for a basic feature space analysis prior to face recognition. This paper devises a joint clustering and classification scheme which learns deep face associations in an easy-to-hard way. Our method is based on hierarchical clustering where the early iterations tend to preserve high reliability. The rationale of our method is that a reliable clustering result can provide insights on the distribution of the feature space, that can guide the classification that follows. Experimental evaluations on three tasks, face verification, face identification and rank-order search, demonstrates better or competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-art, on all three experiments.

#### Age Gap Reducer-GAN for Recognizing Age-Separated Faces

Daksha Yadav, Naman Kohli, Mayank Vatsa, Richa Singh, Afzel Noore

Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Network for Age-separated Face Recognition

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for matching faces with temporal variations caused due to age progression. The proposed generative adversarial network algorithm is a unified framework which combines facial age estimation and age-separated face verification. The key idea of this approach is to learn the age variations across time by conditioning the input image on the subject's gender and the target age group to which the face needs to be progressed. The loss function accounts for reducing the age gap between the original image and generated face image as well as preserving the identity. Both visual fidelity and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture on different facial age databases for age-separated face recognition.

#### Quality-Based Representation for Unconstrained Face Recognition

Nelson Méndez-Llanes, Katy Castillo-Rosado, Heydi Mendez-Vazquez, Massimo Tistarelli

Auto-TLDR; activation map for face recognition in unconstrained environments

Significant advances have been achieved in face recognition in the last decade thanks to the development of deep learning methods. However, recognizing faces captured in uncontrolled environments is still a challenging problem for the scientific community. In these scenarios, the performance of most of existing deep learning based methods abruptly falls, due to the bad quality of the face images. In this work, we propose to use an activation map to represent the quality information in a face image. Different face regions are analyzed to determine their quality and then only those regions with good quality are used to perform the recognition using a given deep face model. For experimental evaluation, in order to simulate unconstrained environments, three challenging databases, with different variations in appearance, were selected: the Labeled Faces in the Wild Database, the Celebrities in Frontal-Profile in the Wild Database, and the AR Database. Three deep face models were used to evaluate the proposal on these databases and in all cases, the use of the proposed activation map allows the improvement of the recognition rates obtained by the original models in a range from 0.3 up to 31%. The obtained results experimentally demonstrated that the proposal is able to select those face areas with higher discriminative power and enough identifying information, while ignores the ones with spurious information.

#### 3D Facial Matching by Spiral Convolutional Metric Learning and a Biometric Fusion-Net of Demographic Properties

Soha Sadat Mahdi, Nele Nauwelaers, Philip Joris, Giorgos Bouritsas, Imperial London, Sergiy Bokhnyak, Susan Walsh, Mark Shriver, Michael Bronstein, Peter Claes

Auto-TLDR; Multi-biometric Fusion for Biometric Verification using 3D Facial Mesures

Face recognition is a widely accepted biometric verification tool, as the face contains a lot of information about the identity of a person. In this study, a 2-step neural-based pipeline is presented for matching 3D facial shape to multiple DNA-related properties (sex, age, BMI and genomic background). The first step consists of a triplet loss-based metric learner that compresses facial shape into a lower dimensional embedding while preserving information about the property of interest. Most studies in the field of metric learning have only focused on Euclidean data. In this work, geometric deep learning is employed to learn directly from 3D facial meshes. To this end, spiral convolutions are used along with a novel mesh-sampling scheme that retains uniformly sampled 3D points at different levels of resolution. The second step is a multi-biometric fusion by a fully connected neural network. The network takes an ensemble of embeddings and property labels as input and returns genuine and imposter scores. Since embeddings are accepted as an input, there is no need to train classifiers for the different properties and available data can be used more efficiently. Results obtained by a 10-fold cross-validation for biometric verification show that combining multiple properties leads to stronger biometric systems. Furthermore, the proposed neural-based pipeline outperforms a linear baseline, which consists of principal component analysis, followed by classification with linear support vector machines and a Naïve Bayes-based score-fuser.

#### Contrastive Data Learning for Facial Pose and Illumination Normalization

Gee-Sern Hsu, Chia-Hao Tang

Auto-TLDR; Pose and Illumination Normalization with Contrast Data Learning for Face Recognition

Face normalization can be a crucial step when handling generic face recognition. We propose the Pose and Illumination Normalization (PIN) framework with contrast data learning for face normalization. The PIN framework is designed to learn the transformation from a source set to a target set. The source set and the target set compose a contrastive data set for learning. The source set contains faces collected in the wild and thus covers a wide range of variation across illumination, pose, expression and other variables. The target set contains face images taken under controlled conditions and all faces are in frontal pose and balanced in illumination. The PIN framework is composed of an encoder, a decoder and two discriminators. The encoder is made of a state-of-the-art face recognition network and acts as a facial feature extractor, which is not updated during training. The decoder is trained on both the source and target sets, and aims to learn the transformation from the source set to the target set; and therefore, it can transform an arbitrary face into a illumination and pose normalized face. The discriminators are trained to ensure the photo-realistic quality of the normalized face images generated by the decoder. The loss functions employed in the decoder and discriminators are appropriately designed and weighted for yielding better normalization outcomes and recognition performance. We verify the performance of the propose framework on several benchmark databases, and compare with state-of-the-art approaches.

#### SoftmaxOut Transformation-Permutation Network for Facial Template Protection

Hakyoung Lee, Cheng Yaw Low, Andrew Teoh

Auto-TLDR; SoftmaxOut Transformation-Permutation Network for C cancellable Biometrics

In this paper, we propose a data-driven cancellable biometrics scheme, referred to as SoftmaxOut Transformation-Permutation Network (SOTPN). The SOTPN is a neural version of Random Permutation Maxout (RPM) transform, which was introduced for facial template protection. We present a specialized SoftmaxOut layer integrated with the permutable MaxOut units and the parameterized softmax function to approximate the non-differentiable permutation and the winner-takes-all operations in the RPM transform. On top of that, a novel pairwise ArcFace loss and a code balancing loss are also formulated to ensure that the SOTPN-transformed facial template is cancellable, discriminative, high entropy and free from quantization errors when coupled with the SoftmaxOut layer. The proposed SOTPN is evaluated on three face datasets, namely LFW, YouTube Face and Facescrub, and our experimental results disclosed that the SOTPN outperforms the RPM transform significantly.

#### Lightweight Low-Resolution Face Recognition for Surveillance Applications

Yoanna Martínez-Díaz, Heydi Mendez-Vazquez, Luis S. Luevano, Leonardo Chang, Miguel Gonzalez-Mendoza

Auto-TLDR; Efﬁciency of Lightweight Deep Face Networks on Low-Resolution Surveillance Imagery

Typically, real-world requirements to deploy face recognition models in unconstrained surveillance scenarios demand to identify low-resolution faces with extremely low computational cost. In the last years, several methods based on complex deep learning models have been proposed with promising recognition results but at a high computational cost. Inspired by the compactness and computation efﬁciency of lightweight deep face networks and their high accuracy on general face recognition tasks, in this work we propose to benchmark two recently introduced lightweight face models on low-resolution surveillance imagery to enable efﬁcient system deployment. In this way, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation on the two typical settings: LR-to-HR and LR-to-LR matching. In addition, we investigate the effect of using trained models with down-sampled synthetic data from high-resolution images, as well as the combination of different models, for face recognition on real low-resolution images. Experimental results show that the used lightweight face models achieve state-of-the-art results on low-resolution benchmarks with low memory footprint and computational complexity. Moreover, we observed that combining models trained with different degradations improves the recognition accuracy on low-resolution surveillance imagery, which is feasible due to their low computational cost.

#### Face Image Quality Assessment for Model and Human Perception

Ken Chen, Yichao Wu, Zhenmao Li, Yudong Wu, Ding Liang

Auto-TLDR; A labour-saving method for FIQA training with contradictory data from multiple sources

Practical face image quality assessment (FIQA) models are trained under the supervision of labeled data, which requires more or less human labor. The human labeled quality scores are consistent with perceptual intuition but laborious. On the other hand, models can be trained with data generated automatically by the recognition models with artificially selected references. However, the recognition scores are sometimes inaccurate, which may give wrong quality scores during FIQA training. In this paper, we propose a labour-saving method for quality scores generation. For the first time, we conduct systematic investigations to show that there exist severe contradictions between different types of target quality, namely distribution gap (DG). To bridge the gap, we propose a novel framework for training FIQA models by combining the merits of data from different sources. In order to make the target score from multiple sources compatible, we design a method called quality distribution alignment (QDA). Meanwhile, to correct the wrong target by recognition models, contradictory samples selection (CSS) is adopted to select samples from the human labeled dataset adaptively. Extensive experiments and analysis on public benchmarks including MegaFace has demonstrated the superiority of our in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

#### Learning Disentangled Representations for Identity Preserving Surveillance Face Camouflage

Jingzhi Li, Lutong Han, Hua Zhang, Xiaoguang Han, Jingguo Ge, Xiaochu Cao

Auto-TLDR; Individual Face Privacy under Surveillance Scenario with Multi-task Loss Function

In this paper, we focus on protecting the person face privacy under the surveillance scenarios, whose goal is to change the visual appearances of faces while keep them to be recognizable by current face recognition systems. This is a challenging problem as that we should retain the most important structures of captured facial images, while alter the salient facial regions to protect personal privacy. To address this problem, we introduce a novel individual face protection model, which can camouflage the face appearance from the perspective of human visual perception and preserve the identity features of faces used for face authentication. To that end, we develop an encoder-decoder network architecture that can separately disentangle the person feature representation into an appearance code and an identity code. Specifically, we first randomly divide the face image into two groups, the source set and the target set, where the source set is used to extract the identity code and the target set provides the appearance code. Then, we recombine the identity and appearance codes to synthesize a new face, which has the same identity with the source subject. Finally, the synthesized faces are used to replace the original face to protect the privacy of individual. Furthermore, our model is trained end-to-end with a multi-task loss function, which can better preserve the identity and stabilize the training loss. Experiments conducted on Cross-Age Celebrity dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our model and validate our superiority in terms of visual quality and scalability.

#### Open-World Group Retrieval with Ambiguity Removal: A Benchmark

Ling Mei, Jian-Huang Lai, Zhanxiang Feng, Xiaohua Xie

Auto-TLDR; P2GSM-AR: Re-identifying changing groups of people under the open-world and group-ambiguity scenarios

Group retrieval has attracted plenty of attention in artificial intelligence, traditional group retrieval researches assume that members in a group are unique and do not change under different cameras. However, the assumption may not be met for practical situations such as open-world and group-ambiguity scenarios. This paper tackles an important yet non-studied problem: re-identifying changing groups of people under the open-world and group-ambiguity scenarios in different camera fields. The open-world scenario considers that there are probably non-target people for the probe set appear in the searching gallery, while the group-ambiguity scenario means the group members may change. The open-world and group-ambiguity issue is very challenging for the existing methods because the changing of group members results in dramatic visual variations. Nevertheless, as far as we know, the existing literature lacks benchmarks which target on coping with this issue. In this paper, we propose a new group retrieval dataset named OWGA-Campus to consider these challenges. Moreover, we propose a person-to-group similarity matching based ambiguity removal (P2GSM-AR) method to solve these problems and realize the intention of group retrieval. Experimental results on OWGA-Campus dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed P2GSM-AR approach in improving the performance of the state-of-the-art feature extraction methods of person re-id towards the open-world and ambiguous group retrieval task.

#### Unsupervised Disentangling of Viewpoint and Residues Variations by Substituting Representations for Robust Face Recognition

Minsu Kim, Joanna Hong, Junho Kim, Hong Joo Lee, Yong Man Ro

Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Disentangling of Identity, viewpoint, and Residue Representations for Robust Face Recognition

It is well-known that identity-unrelated variations (e.g., viewpoint or illumination) degrade the performances of face recognition methods. In order to handle this challenge, a robust method for disentangling the identity and view representations has drawn an attention in the machine learning area. However, existing methods learn discriminative features which require a manual supervision of such factors of variations. In this paper, we propose a novel disentangling framework through modeling three representations of identity, viewpoint, and residues (i.e., identity and pose unrelated) which do not require supervision of the variations. By jointly modeling the three representations, we enhance the disentanglement of each representation and achieve robust face recognition performance. Further, the learned viewpoint representation can be utilized for pose estimation or editing of a posed facial image. Extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations verify the effectiveness of our proposed method which disentangles identity, viewpoint, and residues of facial images.

#### Deep Top-Rank Counter Metric for Person Re-Identification

Chen Chen, Hao Dou, Xiyuan Hu, Silong Peng

Auto-TLDR; Deep Top-Rank Counter Metric for Person Re-identification

In the research field of person re-identification, deep metric learning that guides the efficient and effective embedding learning serves as one of the most fundamental tasks. Recent efforts of the loss function based deep metric learning methods mainly focus on the top rank accuracy optimization by minimiz- ing the distance difference between the correctly matching sample pair and wrongly matched sample pair. However, it is more straightforward to count the occurrences of correct top-rank candidates and maximize the counting results for better top rank accuracy. In this paper, we propose a generalized logistic function based metric with effective practicalness in deep learning, namely the“deep top-rank counter metric”, to approximately optimize the counted occurrences of the correct top-rank matches. The properties that qualify the proposed metric as a well-suited deep re-identification metric have been discussed and a progressive hard sample mining strategy is also introduced for effective training and performance boosting. The extensive experiments show that the proposed top-rank counter metric outperforms other loss function based deep metrics and achieves the state-of- the-art accuracies.

#### Sample-Dependent Distance for 1 : N Identification Via Discriminative Feature Selection

Naoki Kawamura, Susumu Kubota

Auto-TLDR; Feature Selection Mask for 1:N Identification Problems with Binary Features

We focus on 1:N identification problems with binary features. Most multiclass classification methods, including identification and verification methods, use a shared metric space in which distances between samples are measured regardless of their identities. This is because dedicated metric spaces learned for each identity in the training set are of little use for the test set. In 1:N identification problems, however, gallery samples contain rich information about the test domain. Given a sample and its neighbors in the gallery set, we propose a method for calculating a discriminative feature selection mask that is used as a sample-dependent distance metric. Experiments on several re-identification datasets show that the proposed method enhances the performance of state-of-the-art feature extractors.

#### An Adaptive Video-To-Video Face Identification System Based on Self-Training

Eric Lopez-Lopez, Carlos V. Regueiro, Xosé M. Pardo

Auto-TLDR; Adaptive Video-to-Video Face Recognition using Dynamic Ensembles of SVM's

Video-to-video face recognition in unconstrained conditions is still a very challenging problem, as the combination of several factors leads to an in general low-quality of facial frames. Besides, in some real contexts, the availability of labelled samples is limited, or data is streaming or it is only available temporarily due to storage constraints or privacy issues. In these cases, dealing with learning as an unsupervised incremental process is a feasible option. This work proposes a system based on dynamic ensembles of SVM's, which uses the ideas of self-training to perform adaptive Video-to-video face identification. The only label requirements of the system are a few frames (5 in our experiments) directly taken from the video-surveillance stream. The system will autonomously use additional video-frames to update and improve the initial model in an unsupervised way. Results show a significant improvement in comparison to other state-of-the-art static models.

#### SSDL: Self-Supervised Domain Learning for Improved Face Recognition

Samadhi Poornima Kumarasinghe Wickrama Arachchilage, Ebroul Izquierdo

Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Domain Learning for Face Recognition in unconstrained environments

Face recognition in unconstrained environments is challenging due to variations in illumination, quality of sensing, motion blur and etc. An individual’s face appearance can vary drastically under different conditions creating a gap between train (source) and varying test (target) data. The domain gap could cause decreased performance levels in direct knowledge transfer from source to target. Despite fine-tuning with domain specific data could be an effective solution, collecting and annotating data for all domains is extremely expensive. To this end, we propose a self-supervised domain learning (SSDL) scheme that trains on triplets mined from unlabelled data. A key factor in effective discriminative learning, is selecting informative triplets. Building on most confident predictions, we follow an “easy-to-hard” scheme of alternate triplet mining and self-learning. Comprehensive experiments on four different benchmarks show that SSDL generalizes well on different domains.

#### Online Domain Adaptation for Person Re-Identification with a Human in the Loop

Rita Delussu, Lorenzo Putzu, Giorgio Fumera, Fabio Roli

Auto-TLDR; Human-in-the-loop for Person Re-Identification in Infeasible Applications

Supervised deep learning methods have recently achieved remarkable performance in person re-identification. Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) approaches have also been proposed for application scenarios where only unlabelled data are available from target camera views. We consider a more challenging scenario when even collecting a suitable amount of representative, unlabelled target data for offline training or fine-tuning is infeasible. In this context we revisit the human-in-the-loop (HITL) approach, which exploits online the operator's feedback on a small amount of target data. We argue that HITL is a kind of online domain adaptation specifically suited to person re-identification. We then reconsider relevance feedback methods for content-based image retrieval that are computationally much cheaper than state-of-the-art HITL methods for person re-identification, and devise a specific feedback protocol for them. Experimental results show that HITL can achieve comparable or better performance than UDA, and is therefore a valid alternative when the lack of unlabelled target data makes UDA infeasible.

#### Attentive Part-Aware Networks for Partial Person Re-Identification

Lijuan Huo, Chunfeng Song, Zhengyi Liu, Zhaoxiang Zhang

Auto-TLDR; Part-Aware Learning for Partial Person Re-identification

Partial person re-identification (re-ID) refers to re-identify a person through occluded images. It suffers from two major challenges, i.e., insufficient training data and incomplete probe image. In this paper, we introduce an automatic data augmentation module and a part-aware learning method for partial re-identification. On the one hand, we adopt the data augmentation to enhance the training data and help learns more stabler partial features. On the other hand, we intuitively find that the partial person images usually have fixed percentages of parts, therefore, in partial person re-id task, the probe image could be cropped from the pictures and divided into several different partial types following fixed ratios. Based on the cropped images, we propose the Cropping Type Consistency (CTC) loss to classify the cropping types of partial images. Moreover, in order to help the network better fit the generated and cropped data, we incorporate the Block Attention Mechanism (BAM) into the framework for attentive learning. To enhance the retrieval performance in the inference stage, we implement cropping on gallery images according to the predicted types of probe partial images. Through calculating feature distances between the partial image and the cropped holistic gallery images, we can recognize the right person from the gallery. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we conduct extensive experiments on the partial re-ID benchmarks and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

#### Adaptive L2 Regularization in Person Re-Identification

Xingyang Ni, Liang Fang, Heikki Juhani Huttunen

We introduce an adaptive L2 regularization mechanism termed AdaptiveReID, in the setting of person re-identification. In the literature, it is common practice to utilize hand-picked regularization factors which remain constant throughout the training procedure. Unlike existing approaches, the regularization factors in our proposed method are updated adaptively through backpropagation. This is achieved by incorporating trainable scalar variables as the regularization factors, which are further fed into a scaled hard sigmoid function. Extensive experiments on the Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID and MSMT17 datasets validate the effectiveness of our framework. Most notably, we obtain state-of-the-art performance on MSMT17, which is the largest dataset for person re-identification. Source code will be published at https://github.com/nixingyang/AdaptiveReID.

#### Attribute-Based Quality Assessment for Demographic Estimation in Face Videos

Fabiola Becerra-Riera, Annette Morales-González, Heydi Mendez-Vazquez, Jean-Luc Dugelay

Auto-TLDR; Facial Demographic Estimation in Video Scenarios Using Quality Assessment

Most existing works regarding facial demographic estimation are focused on still image datasets, although nowadays the need to analyze video content in real applications is increasing. We propose to tackle gender, age and ethnicity estimation in the context of video scenarios. Our main contribution is to use an attribute-specific quality assessment procedure to select best quality frames from a video sequence for each of the three demographic modalities. Best quality frames are classified with fine-tuned MobileNet models and a final video prediction is obtained with a majority voting strategy among the best selected frames. Our validation on three different datasets and our comparison with state-of-the-art models, show the effectiveness of the proposed demographic classifiers and the quality pipeline, which allows to reduce both: the number of frames to be classified and the processing time in practical applications; and improves the soft biometrics prediction accuracy.

#### SATGAN: Augmenting Age Biased Dataset for Cross-Age Face Recognition

Wenshuang Liu, Wenting Chen, Yuanlue Zhu, Linlin Shen

Auto-TLDR; SATGAN: Stable Age Translation GAN for Cross-Age Face Recognition

In this paper, we propose a Stable Age Translation GAN (SATGAN) to generate fake face images at different ages to augment age biased face datasets for Cross-Age Face Recognition (CAFR) . The proposed SATGAN consists of both generator and discriminator. As a part of the generator, a novel Mask Attention Module (MAM) is introduced to make the generator focus on the face area. In addition, the generator employs a Uniform Distribution Discriminator (UDD) to supervise the learning of latent feature map and enforce the uniform distribution. Besides, the discriminator employs a Feature Separation Module (FSM) to disentangle identity information from the age information. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations on Morph dataset prove that SATGAN achieves much better performance than existing methods. The face recognition model trained using dataset (VGGFace2 and MS-Celeb-1M) augmented using our SATGAN achieves better accuracy on cross age dataset like Cross-Age LFW and AgeDB-30.

#### G-FAN: Graph-Based Feature Aggregation Network for Video Face Recognition

He Zhao, Yongjie Shi, Xin Tong, Jingsi Wen, Xianghua Ying, Jinshi Hongbin Zha

Auto-TLDR; Graph-based Feature Aggregation Network for Video Face Recognition

In this paper, we propose a graph-based feature aggregation network (G-FAN) for video face recognition. Compared with the still image, video face recognition exhibits great challenges due to huge intra-class variability and high inter-class ambiguity. To address this problem, our G-FAN first uses a Convolutional Neural Network to extract deep features for every input face of a subject. Then, we build an affinity graph based on the relation between facial features and apply Graph Convolutional Network to generate fine-grained quality vectors for each frame. Finally, the features among multiple frames are adaptively aggregated into a discriminative vector to represent a video face. Different from previous works that take a single image as input, our G-FAN could utilize the correlation information between image pairs and aggregate a template of faces simultaneously. The experiments on video face recognition benchmarks, including YTF, IJB-A, and IJB-C show that: (i) G-FAN automatically learns to advocate high-quality frames while repelling low-quality ones. (ii) G-FAN significantly boosts recognition accuracy and outperforms other state-of-the-art aggregation methods.

#### Cam-Softmax for Discriminative Deep Feature Learning

Tamas Suveges, Stephen James Mckenna

Auto-TLDR; Cam-Softmax: A Generalisation of Activations and Softmax for Deep Feature Spaces

Deep convolutional neural networks are widely used to learn feature spaces for image classification tasks. We propose cam-softmax, a generalisation of the final layer activations and softmax function, that encourages deep feature spaces to exhibit high intra-class compactness and high inter-class separability. We provide an algorithm to automatically adapt the method's main hyperparameter so that it gradually diverges from the standard activations and softmax method during training. We report experiments using CASIA-Webface, LFW, and YTF face datasets demonstrating that cam-softmax leads to representations well suited to open-set face recognition and face pair matching. Furthermore, we provide empirical evidence that cam-softmax provides some robustness to class labelling errors in training data, making it of potential use for deep learning from large datasets with poorly verified labels.

#### Cross-spectrum Face Recognition Using Subspace Projection Hashing

Hanrui Wang, Xingbo Dong, Jin Zhe, Jean-Luc Dugelay, Massimo Tistarelli

Auto-TLDR; Subspace Projection Hashing for Cross-Spectrum Face Recognition

Cross-spectrum face recognition, e.g. visible to thermal matching, remains a challenging task due to the large variation originated from different domains. This paper proposed a subspace projection hashing (SPH) to enable the cross-spectrum face recognition task. The intrinsic idea behind SPH is to project the features from different domains onto a common subspace, where matching the faces from different domains can be accomplished. Notably, we proposed a new loss function that can (i) preserve both inter-domain and intra-domain similarity; (ii) regularize a scaled-up pairwise distance between hashed codes, to optimize projection matrix. Three datasets, Wiki, EURECOM VIS-TH paired face and TDFace are adopted to evaluate the proposed SPH. The experimental results indicate that the proposed SPH outperforms the original linear subspace ranking hashing (LSRH) in the benchmark dataset (Wiki) and demonstrates a reasonably good performance for visible-thermal, visible-near-infrared face recognition, therefore suggests the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed SPH.

#### DAIL: Dataset-Aware and Invariant Learning for Face Recognition

Gaoang Wang, Chen Lin, Tianqiang Liu, Mingwei He, Jiebo Luo

Auto-TLDR; DAIL: Dataset-Aware and Invariant Learning for Face Recognition

To achieve good performance in face recognition, a large scale training dataset is usually required. A simple yet effective way for improving the recognition performance is to use a dataset as large as possible by combining multiple datasets in the training. However, it is problematic and troublesome to naively combine different datasets due to two major issues. Firstly, the same person can possibly appear in different datasets, leading to the identity overlapping issue between different datasets. Natively treating the same person as different classes in different datasets during training will affect back-propagation and generate non-representative embeddings. On the other hand, manually cleaning labels will take a lot of human efforts, especially when there are millions of images and thousands of identities. Secondly, different datasets are collected in different situations and thus will lead to different domain distributions. Natively combining datasets will lead to domain distribution differences and make it difficult to learn domain invariant embeddings across different datasets. In this paper, we propose DAIL: Dataset-Aware and Invariant Learning to resolve the above-mentioned issues. To solve the first issue of identity overlapping, we propose a dataset-aware loss for multi-dataset training by reducing the penalty when the same person appears in multiple datasets. This can be readily achieved with a modified softmax loss with a dataset-aware term. To solve the second issue, the domain adaptation with gradient reversal layers is employed for dataset invariant learning. The proposed approach not only achieves state-of-the-art results on several commonly used face recognition validation sets, like LFW, CFP-FP, AgeDB-30, but also shows great benefit for practical usage.

#### Progressive Learning Algorithm for Efficient Person Re-Identification

Zhen Li, Hanyang Shao, Liang Niu, Nian Xue

Auto-TLDR; Progressive Learning Algorithm for Large-Scale Person Re-Identification

This paper studies the problem of Person Re-Identification (ReID) for large-scale applications. Recent research efforts have been devoted to building complicated part models, which introduce considerably high computational cost and memory consumption, inhibiting its practicability in large-scale applications. This paper aims to develop a novel learning strategy to find efficient feature embeddings while maintaining the balance of accuracy and model complexity. More specifically, we find by enhancing the classical triplet loss together with cross-entropy loss, our method can explore the hard examples and build a discriminant feature embedding yet compact enough for large-scale applications. Our method is carried out progressively using Bayesian optimization, and we call it the Progressive Learning Algorithm (PLA). Extensive experiments on three large-scale datasets show that our PLA is comparable or better than the state-of-the-arts. Especially, on the challenging Market-1501 dataset, we achieve Rank-1=94.7\%/mAP=89.4\% while saving at least 30\% parameters than strong part models.

#### Optimal Strategies for Comparing Covariates to Solve Matching Problems

Muhammad Ahmed Shah, Raphael Olivier, Bhiksha Raj

Auto-TLDR; Covariate Matching for Pairwise Verification and Ranking

Many machine learning tasks can be posed as matching problems in which we are given a probe'' entry that we expect matches some of the entries in our gallery''. The general solution to these problems is to retrieve matching entries based on statistical dependencies between the probe and the gallery data that are learned using complex models. Often, however, there are other common {\em covariates} to the probe and gallery data which might be easily inferred and may explain some of the statistical dependencies between the two. In this paper we present a probabilistic framework to derive optimal matching strategies based only on covariate features for three broad tasks, namely \textit{$N$-way classification}, \textit{pairwise verification} and \textit{ranking}. We use canonical metrics to determine the maximum performance that can be expected if only covariate features are used and determine the marginal gain of using complex models. We find that covariate matching achieves an EER within 10\% of a CNN in the verification task, and an MAP within 22\% of the a DNN based model in the ranking task.

#### Finger Vein Recognition and Intra-Subject Similarity Evaluation of Finger Veins Using the CNN Triplet Loss

Georg Wimmer, Bernhard Prommegger, Andreas Uhl

Auto-TLDR; Finger vein recognition using CNNs and hard triplet online selection

Finger vein recognition deals with the identification of subjects based on their venous pattern within the fingers. There is a lot of prior work using hand crafted features, but only little work using CNN based recognition systems. This article proposes a new approach using CNNs that utilizes the triplet loss function together with hard triplet online selection for finger vein recognition. The CNNs are used for three different use cases: (1) the classical recognition use case, where every finger of a subject is considered as a separate class, (2) an evaluation of the similarity of left and right hand fingers from the same subject and (3) an evaluation of the similarity of different fingers of the same subject. The results show that the proposed approach achieves superior results compared to prior work on finger vein recognition using the triplet loss function. Furtherly, we show that different fingers of the same subject, especially same fingers from the left and right hand, show enough similarities to perform recognition. The last statement contradicts the current understanding in the literature for finger vein biometry, in which it is assumed that different fingers of the same subject are unique identities.

#### How Important Are Faces for Person Re-Identification?

Julia Dietlmeier, Joseph Antony, Kevin Mcguinness, Noel E O'Connor

Auto-TLDR; Anonymization of Person Re-identification Datasets with Face Detection and Blurring

This paper investigates the dependence of existing state-of-the-art person re-identification models on the presence and visibility of human faces. We apply a face detection and blurring algorithm to create anonymized versions of several popular person re-identification datasets including Market1501, DukeMTMC-reID, CUHK03, Viper, and Airport. Using a cross-section of existing state-of-the-art models that range in accuracy and computational efficiency, we evaluate the effect of this anonymization on re-identification performance using standard metrics. Perhaps surprisingly, the effect on mAP is very small, and accuracy is recovered by simply training on the anonymized versions of the data rather than the original data. These findings are consistent across multiple models and datasets. These results indicate that datasets can be safely anonymized by blurring faces without significantly impacting the performance of person re-identification systems, and may allow for the release of new richer re-identification datasets where previously there were privacy or data protection concerns.

#### Angular Sparsemax for Face Recognition

Chi Ho Chan, Josef Kittler

Auto-TLDR; Angular Sparsemax for Face Recognition

We formulate a novel loss function, called Angular Sparsemax for face recognition. The proposed loss function promotes sparseness of the hypotheses prediction function similar to Sparsemax with Fenchel-Young regularisation. With introducing an additive angular margin on the score vector, the discriminatory power of the face embedding is further improved. The proposed loss function is experimentally validated on several databases in term of recognition accuracy. Its performance compares well with the state of the art Arcface loss.

#### Pose-Robust Face Recognition by Deep Meta Capsule Network-Based Equivariant Embedding

Fangyu Wu, Jeremy Simon Smith, Wenjin Lu, Bailing Zhang

Auto-TLDR; Deep Meta Capsule Network-based Equivariant Embedding Model for Pose-Robust Face Recognition

Despite the exceptional success in face recognition related technologies, handling large pose variations still remains a key challenge. Current techniques for pose-robust face recognition either, directly extract pose-invariant features, or first synthesize a face that matches the target pose before feature extraction. It is more desirable to learn face representations equivariant to pose variations. To this end, this paper proposes a deep meta Capsule network-based Equivariant Embedding Model (DM-CEEM) with three distinct novelties. First, the proposed RB-CapsNet allows DM-CEEM to learn an equivariant embedding for pose variations and achieve the desired transformation for input face images. Second, we introduce a new version of a Capsule network called RB-CapsNet to extend CapsNet to perform a profile-to-frontal face transformation in deep feature space. Third, we train the DM-CEEM in a meta way by treating a single overall classification target as multiple sub-tasks that satisfy certain unknown probabilities. In each sub-task, we sample the support and query sets randomly. The experimental results on both controlled and in-the-wild databases demonstrate the superiority of DM-CEEM over state-of-the-art.

#### Rethinking ReID：Multi-Feature Fusion Person Re-Identification Based on Orientation Constraints

Mingjing Ai, Guozhi Shan, Bo Liu, Tianyang Liu

Auto-TLDR; Person Re-identification with Orientation Constrained Network

Person re-identification (ReID) aims to identify the specific pedestrian in a series of images or videos. Recently, ReID is receiving more and more attention in the fields of computer vision research and application like intelligent security. One major issue downgrading the ReID model performance lies in that various subjects in the same body orientations look too similar to distinguish by the model, while the same subject viewed in different orientations looks rather different. However, most of the current studies do not particularly differentiate pedestrians in orientation when designing the network, so we rethink this problem particularly from the perspective of person orientation and propose a new network structure by including two branches: one handling samples with the same body orientations and the other handling samples with different body orientations. Correspondingly, we also propose an orientation classifier that can accurately distinguish the orientation of each person. At the same time, the three-part loss functions are introduced for orientation constraint and combined to optimize the network simultaneously. Also, we use global and local features int the training stage in order to make use of multi-level information. Therefore, our network can derive its efficacy from orientation constraints and multiple features. Experiments show that our method not only has competitive performance on multiple datasets, but also can let retrieval results aligned with the orientation of the query sample rank higher, which may have great potential in the practical applications.

#### Learning Emotional Blinded Face Representations

Alejandro Peña Almansa, Julian Fierrez, Agata Lapedriza, Aythami Morales

Auto-TLDR; Blind Face Representations for Emotion Recognition

This work proposes two new face representations that are blind to the expressions associated to emotional responses. This work is in part motivated by new international regulations for personal data protection, which force data controllers to protect any kind of sensitive information involved in automatic processes. The advances in affective computing have contributed to improve human-machine interfaces, but at the same time, the capacity to monitorize emotional responses trigger potential risks for humans, both in terms of fairness and privacy. We propose two different methods to learn these facial expression blinded features. We show that it is possible to eliminate information related to emotion recognition tasks, while the performance of subject verification, gender recognition, and ethnicity classification are just slightly affected. We also present an application to train fairer classifiers over a protected facial expression attribute. The results demonstrate that it is possible to reduce emotional information in the face representation while retaining competitive performance in other face-based artificial intelligence tasks.

#### Loop-closure detection by LiDAR scan re-identification

Jukka Peltomäki, Xingyang Ni, Jussi Puura, Joni-Kristian Kamarainen, Heikki Juhani Huttunen

Auto-TLDR; Loop-Closing Detection from LiDAR Scans Using Convolutional Neural Networks

In this work, loop-closure detection from LiDAR scans is defined as an image re-identification problem. Re-identification is performed by computing Euclidean distances of a query scan to a gallery set of previous scans. The distances are computed in a feature embedding space where the scans are mapped by a convolutional neural network (CNN). The network is trained using the triplet loss training strategy. In our experiments we compare different backbone networks, variants of the triplet loss and generic and LiDAR specific data augmentation techniques. With a realistic indoor dataset the best architecture obtains the mean average precision (mAP) above 90%.

#### Top-DB-Net: Top DropBlock for Activation Enhancement in Person Re-Identification

Rodolfo Quispe, Helio Pedrini

Auto-TLDR; Top-DB-Net for Person Re-Identification using Top DropBlock

Person Re-Identification is a challenging task that aims to retrieve all instances of a query image across a system of non-overlapping cameras. Due to the various extreme changes of view, it is common that local regions that could be used to match people are suppressed, which leads to a scenario where approaches have to evaluate the similarity of images based on less informative regions. In this work, we introduce the Top-DB-Net, a method based on Top DropBlock that pushes the network to learn to focus on the scene foreground, with special emphasis on the most task-relevant regions and, at the same time, encodes low informative regions to provide high discriminability. The Top-DB-Net is composed of three streams: (i) a global stream encodes rich image information from a backbone, (ii) the Top DropBlock stream encourages the backbone to encode low informative regions with high discriminative features, and (iii) a regularization stream helps to deal with the noise created by the dropping process of the second stream, when testing the first two streams are used. Vast experiments on three challenging datasets show the capabilities of our approach against state-of-the-art methods. Qualitative results demonstrate that our method exhibits better activation maps focusing on reliable parts of the input images.

#### A Flatter Loss for Bias Mitigation in Cross-Dataset Facial Age Estimation

Ali Akbari, Muhammad Awais, Zhenhua Feng, Ammarah Farooq, Josef Kittler

Auto-TLDR; Cross-dataset Age Estimation for Neural Network Training

Existing studies in facial age estimation have mostly focused on intra-dataset protocols that assume training and test images captured under similar conditions. However, this is rarely valid in practical applications, where training and test sets usually have different characteristics. In this paper, we advocate a cross-dataset protocol for age estimation benchmarking. In order to improve the cross-dataset age estimation performance, we mitigate the inherent bias caused by the learning algorithm. To this end, we propose a novel loss function that is more effective for neural network training. The relative smoothness of the proposed loss function is its advantage with regards to the optimisation process performed by stochastic gradient decent. Its lower gradient, compared with existing loss functions, facilitates the discovery of and convergence to a better optimum, and consequently a better generalisation. The cross-dataset experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and generalisation capability.

#### 3D Dental Biometrics: Automatic Pose-Invariant Dental Arch Extraction and Matching

Zhong Xin, Zhiyuan Zhang

Auto-TLDR; Automatic Dental Arch Extraction and Matching for 3D Dental Identification using Laser-Scanned Plasters

A novel automatic pose-invariant dental arch extraction and matching framework is developed for 3D dental identification using laser-scanned dental plasters. In our previous attempt [1-5], 3D point-based algorithms have been developed and they have shown a few advantages over existing 2D dental identifications. This study is a continuous effort in developing arch-based algorithms to extract and match dental arch feature in an automatic and pose-invariant way. As best as we know, this is the first attempt at automatic dental arch extraction and matching for 3D dental identification. A Radial Ray Algorithm (RRA) is proposed by projecting dental arch shape from 3D to 2D. This algorithm is fully automatic and fast. Preliminary identification result is obtained by matching 11 postmortem (PM) samples against 200 ante-mortem (AM) samples. 72.7% samples achieved top 5% accuracy. 90.9% samples achieved top 10% accuracy and all 11 samples (100%) achieved top 15.5% accuracy out of the 200-rank list. In addition, the time for identifying a single subject from 200 subjects has been significantly reduced from 45 minutes to 5 minutes by matching the extracted 2D dental arch. Although the extracted 2D arch feature is not as accurate and discriminative as the full 3D arch, it may serve as an important filter feature to improve the identification speed in future investigations.

#### InsideBias: Measuring Bias in Deep Networks and Application to Face Gender Biometrics

Ignacio Serna, Alejandro Peña Almansa, Aythami Morales, Julian Fierrez

Auto-TLDR; InsideBias: Detecting Bias in Deep Neural Networks from Face Images

This work explores the biases in learning processes based on deep neural network architectures. We analyze how bias affects deep learning processes through a toy example using the MNIST database and a case study in gender detection from face images. We employ two gender detection models based on popular deep neural networks. We present a comprehensive analysis of bias effects when using an unbalanced training dataset on the features learned by the models. We show how bias impacts in the activations of gender detection models based on face images. We finally propose InsideBias, a novel method to detect biased models. InsideBias is based on how the models represent the information instead of how they perform, which is the normal practice in other existing methods for bias detection. Our strategy with InsideBias allows to detect biased models with very few samples (only 15 images in our case study). Our experiments include 72K face images from 24K identities and 3 ethnic groups.

#### Deep Gait Relative Attribute Using a Signed Quadratic Contrastive Loss

Yuta Hayashi, Shehata Allam, Yasushi Makihara, Daigo Muramatsu, Yasushi Yagi

Auto-TLDR; Signal-Contrastive Loss for Gait Attributes Estimation

This paper presents a deep learning-based method to estimate gait attributes (e.g., stately, cool, relax, etc.). Similarly to the existing studies on relative attribute, human perception-based annotations on the gait attributes are given to pairs of gait videos (i.e., the first one is better, tie, and the second one is better), and the relative annotations are utilized to train a ranking model of the gait attribute. More specifically, we design a Siamese (i.e., two-stream) network which takes a pair of gait inputs and output gait attribute score for each. We then introduce a suitable loss function called a signed contrastive loss to train the network parameters with the relative annotation. Unlike the existing loss functions for learning to rank does not inherent a nice property of a quadratic contrastive loss, the proposed signed quadratic contrastive loss function inherents the nice property. The quantitative evaluation results reveal that the proposed method shows better or comparable accuracies of relative attribute prediction against the baseline methods.

#### Nonlinear Ranking Loss on Riemannian Potato Embedding

Byung Hyung Kim, Yoonje Suh, Honggu Lee, Sungho Jo

Auto-TLDR; Riemannian Potato for Rank-based Metric Learning

We propose a rank-based metric learning method by leveraging a concept of the Riemannian Potato for better separating non-linear data. By exploring the geometric properties of Riemannian manifolds, the proposed loss function optimizes the measure of dispersion using the distribution of Riemannian distances between a reference sample and neighbors and builds a ranked list according to the similarities. We show the proposed function can learn a hypersphere for each class, preserving the similarity structure inside it on Riemannian manifold. As a result, compared with Euclidean distance-based metric, our method can further jointly reduce the intra-class distances and enlarge the inter-class distances for learned features, consistently outperforming state-of-the-art methods on three widely used non-linear datasets.

#### Equation Attention Relationship Network (EARN) : A Geometric Deep Metric Framework for Learning Similar Math Expression Embedding

Saleem Ahmed, Kenny Davila, Srirangaraj Setlur, Venu Govindaraju

Auto-TLDR; Representational Learning for Similarity Based Retrieval of Mathematical Expressions

Representational Learning in the form of high dimensional embeddings have been used for multiple pattern recognition applications. There has been a significant interest in building embedding based systems for learning representationsin the mathematical domain. At the same time, retrieval of structured information such as mathematical expressions is an important need for modern IR systems. In this work, our motivation is to introduce a robust framework for learning representations for similarity based retrieval of mathematical expressions. Given a query by example, the embedding can find the closest matching expression as a function of euclidean distance between them. We leverage recent advancements in image-based and graph-based deep learning algorithms to learn our similarity embeddings. We do this first, by using uni-modal encoders in graph space and image space and then, a multi-modal combination of the same. To overcome the lack of training data, we force the networks to learn a deep metric using triplets generated with a heuristic scoring function. We also adopt a custom strategy for mining hard samples to train our neural networks. Our system produces rankings similar to those generated by the original scoring function, but using only a fraction of the time. Our results establish the viability of using such a multi-modal embedding for this task.

#### Not 3D Re-ID: Simple Single Stream 2D Convolution for Robust Video Re-Identification

Toby Breckon, Aishah Alsehaim

Auto-TLDR; ResNet50-IBN for Video-based Person Re-Identification using Single Stream 2D Convolution Network

Video-based person re-identification has received increasing attention recently, as it plays an important role within the surveillance video analysis. Video-based Re-ID is an expansion of earlier image-based re-identification methods by learning features from a video via multiple image frames for each person. Most contemporary video Re-ID methods utilise complex CNN-based network architectures using 3D convolution or multi-branch networks to extract spatial-temporal features from the video. By contrast, in this paper, we will illustrate superior performance from a simple single stream 2D convolution network leveraging the ResNet50-IBN architecture to extract frame-level features followed by temporal attention for clip level features. These clip level features can be generalised to extract video level features by averaging clip level features without any additional cost. Our model, uses best video Re-ID practice and transfer learning between datasets, outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches on MARS, PRID2011 and iLIDSVID datasets with 89:62%, 97:75%, 97:33% rank-1 accuracy respectively and with 84:61% mAP for MARS, without reliance on complex and memory intensive 3D convolutions or multistream networks architectures as found in other contemporary work. Conversely, this work shows that global features extracted by the 2D convolution network are a sufficient representation for robust state of the art video Re-ID.

#### Generalized Local Attention Pooling for Deep Metric Learning

Carlos Roig Mari, David Varas, Issey Masuda, Juan Carlos Riveiro, Elisenda Bou-Balust

Auto-TLDR; Generalized Local Attention Pooling for Deep Metric Learning

Deep metric learning has been key to recent advances in face verification and image retrieval amongst others. These systems consist on a feature extraction block (extracts feature maps from images) followed by a spatial dimensionality reduction block (generates compact image representations from the feature maps) and an embedding generation module (projects the image representation to the embedding space). While research on deep metric learning has focused on improving the losses for the embedding generation module, the dimensionality reduction block has been overlooked. In this work, we propose a novel method to generate compact image representations which uses local spatial information through an attention mechanism, named Generalized Local Attention Pooling (GLAP). This method, instead of being placed at the end layer of the backbone, is connected at an intermediate level, resulting in lower memory requirements. We assess the performance of the aforementioned method by comparing it with multiple dimensionality reduction techniques, demonstrating the importance of using attention weights to generate robust compact image representations. Moreover, we compare the performance of multiple state-of-the-art losses using the standard deep metric learning system against the same experiment with our GLAP. Experiments showcase that the proposed Generalized Local Attention Pooling mechanism outperforms other pooling methods when compared with current state-of-the-art losses for deep metric learning.

#### Exemplar Guided Cross-Spectral Face Hallucination Via Mutual Information Disentanglement

Haoxue Wu, Huaibo Huang, Aijing Yu, Jie Cao, Zhen Lei, Ran He

Auto-TLDR; Exemplar Guided Cross-Spectral Face Hallucination with Structural Representation Learning

Recently, many Near infrared-visible (NIR-VIS) heterogeneous face recognition (HFR) methods have been proposed in the community. But it remains a challenging problem because of the sensing gap along with large pose variations. In this paper, we propose an Exemplar Guided Cross-Spectral Face Hallucination (EGCH) to reduce the domain discrepancy through disentangled representation learning. For each modality, EGCH contains a spectral encoder as well as a structure encoder to disentangle spectral and structure representation, respectively. It also contains a traditional generator that reconstructs the input from the above two representations, and a structure generator that predicts the facial parsing map from the structure representation. Besides, mutual information minimization and maximization are conducted to boost disentanglement and make representations adequately expressed. Then the translation is built on structure representations between two modalities. Provided with the transformed NIR structure representation and original VIS spectral representation, EGCH is capable to produce high-fidelity VIS images that preserve the topology structure of the input NIR while transfer the spectral information of an arbitrary VIS exemplar. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves more promising results both qualitatively and quantitatively than the state-of-the-art NIR-VIS methods.