Conditional Multi-Task Learning for Plant Disease Identification

Sue Han Lee, Herve Goëau, Pierre Bonnet, Alexis Joly
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; A conditional multi-task learning approach for plant disease identification

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Several recent studies have proposed an automatic plant disease identification system based on deep learning. Although successful, these approaches are generally based on learned classification models with target classes of joint host species-disease pairs that may not allow optimal use of the available information. This is due to the fact that they require distinguishing between similar host species or diseases. In fact, these approaches have limited scalability because the size of a network gradually increases as new classes are added, even if information on host species or diseases is already available. This constraint is all the more important as it can be difficult to collect/establish a specific list of all diseases for each host plant species in an actual application. In this paper, we address the problems by proposing a new conditional multi-task learning (CMTL) approach which allows the distribution of host species and disease characteristics learned simultaneously with a conditional link between them. This conditioning is formed in such a way that the knowledge to infer the prediction of one concept (the diseases) depends on the other concept (the host species), which corresponds to the way plant pathologists used to infer the diseases of the host species. We show that our approach can improve the performance of plant disease identification compared to the usual species-disease pair modeling in the previous studies. Meanwhile, we also compose a new dataset on plant disease identification that could serve as an important benchmark in this field.

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Improving Model Accuracy for Imbalanced Image Classification Tasks by Adding a Final Batch Normalization Layer: An Empirical Study

Veysel Kocaman, Ofer M. Shir, Thomas Baeck
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; Exploiting Batch Normalization before the Output Layer in Deep Learning for Minority Class Detection in Imbalanced Data Sets

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Some real-world domains, such as Agriculture and Healthcare, comprise early-stage disease indications whose recording constitutes a rare event, and yet, whose precise detection at that stage is critical. In this type of highly imbalanced classification problems, which encompass complex features, deep learning (DL) is much needed because of its strong detection capabilities. At the same time, DL is observed in practice to favor majority over minority classes and consequently suffer from inaccurate detection of the targeted early-stage indications. To simulate such scenarios, we artificially generate skewness (99% vs. 1%) for certain plant types out of the PlantVillage dataset as a basis for classification of scarce visual cues through transfer learning. By randomly and unevenly picking healthy and unhealthy samples from certain plant types to form a training set, we consider a base experiment as fine-tuning ResNet34 and VGG19 architectures and then testing the model performance on a balanced dataset of healthy and unhealthy images. We empirically observe that the initial F1 test score jumps from 0.29 to 0.95 for the minority class upon adding a final Batch Normalization (BN) layer just before the output layer in VGG19. We demonstrate that utilizing an additional BN layer before the output layer in modern CNN architectures has a considerable impact in terms of minimizing the training time and testing error for minority classes in highly imbalanced data sets. Moreover, when the final BN is employed, trying to minimize validation and training losses may not be an optimal way for getting a high F1 test score for minority classes in anomaly detection problems. That is, the network might perform better even if it is not ‘confident’ enough while making a prediction; leading to another discussion about why softmax output is not a good uncertainty measure for DL models.

BAT Optimized CNN Model Identifies Water Stress in Chickpea Plant Shoot Images

Shiva Azimi, Taranjit Kaur, Tapan Gandhi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; BAT Optimized ResNet-18 for Stress Classification of chickpea shoot images under water deficiency

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Stress due to water deficiency in plants can significantly lower the agricultural yield. It can affect many visible plant traits such as size and surface area, the number of leaves and their color, etc. In recent years, computer vision-based plant phenomics has emerged as a promising tool for plant research and management. Such techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive, non-evasive, fast, and offer high levels of automation. Pulses like chickpeas play an important role in ensuring food security in poor countries owing to their high protein and nutrition content. In the present work, we have built a dataset comprising of two varieties of chickpea plant shoot images under different moisture stress conditions. Specifically, we propose a BAT optimized ResNet-18 model for classifying stress induced by water deficiency using chickpea shoot images. BAT algorithm identifies the optimal value of the mini-batch size to be used for training rather than employing the traditional manual approach of trial and error. Experimentation on two crop varieties (JG and Pusa) reveals that BAT optimized approach achieves an accuracy of 96% and 91% for JG and Pusa varieties that is better than the traditional method by 4%. The experimental results are also compared with state of the art CNN models like Alexnet, GoogleNet, and ResNet-50. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed BAT optimized ResNet-18 model achieves higher performance than the comparison counterparts.

Not All Domains Are Equally Complex: Adaptive Multi-Domain Learning

Ali Senhaji, Jenni Karoliina Raitoharju, Moncef Gabbouj, Alexandros Iosifidis
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Adaptive Parameterization for Multi-Domain Learning

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Deep learning approaches are highly specialized and require training separate models for different tasks. Multi-domain learning looks at ways to learn a multitude of different tasks, each coming from a different domain, at once. The most common approach in multi-domain learning is to form a domain agnostic model, the parameters of which are shared among all domains, and learn a small number of extra domain-specific parameters for each individual new domain. However, different domains come with different levels of difficulty; parameterizing the models of all domains using an augmented version of the domain agnostic model leads to unnecessarily inefficient solutions, especially for easy to solve tasks. We propose an adaptive parameterization approach to deep neural networks for multi-domain learning. The proposed approach performs on par with the original approach while reducing by far the number of parameters, leading to efficient multi-domain learning solutions.

Emerging Relation Network and Task Embedding for Multi-Task Regression Problems

Schreiber Jens, Bernhard Sick
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; A Comparative Study of Multi-Task Learning for Non-linear Time Series Problems

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Multi-Task learning (MTL) provides state-of-the-art results in many applications of computer vision and natural language processing. In contrast to single-task learning (STL), MTL allows for leveraging knowledge between related tasks improving prediction results on all tasks. However, there is a limited number of comparative studies applied to MTL architectures for regression and time series problems taking recent advances of MTL into account. An intriguing, non-linear time-series problem are day ahead forecasts of the expected power generation for renewable power plants. Therefore, the main contribution of this article is a comparative study of the following recent and relevant MTL architectures: Hard-parameter sharing, cross-stitch network, and sluice network (SN). They are compared to a multi-layer peceptron (MLP) model of similar size in an STL setting. As a additional contribution, we provide a simple, yet practical approach to model task specific information through an embedding layer in an MLP, referred to as task embedding. Further, we contribute a new MTL architecture named emerging relation network (ERN), which can be considered as an extension of the SN. For a solar power dataset, the task embedding achieves the best mean improvement with 8.2%. For two wind and one additional solar dataset, the ERN is the best MTL architecture with improvements up to 11.3%.

Fine-Tuning Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Guide and Benchmark Analysis for Glaucoma Screening

Amed Mvoulana, Rostom Kachouri, Mohamed Akil
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Fine-tuning Convolutional Neural Networks for Glaucoma Screening

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This work aimed at giving a comprehensive and in-detailed guide on the route to fine-tuning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for glaucoma screening. Transfer learning consists in a promising alternative to train CNNs from stratch, to avoid the huge data and resources requirements. After a thorough study of five state-of-the-art CNNs architectures, a complete and well-explained strategy for fine-tuning these networks is proposed, using hyperparameter grid-searching and two-phase training approach. Excellent performance is reached on model evaluation, with a 0.9772 AUROC validation rate, giving arise to reliable glaucoma diagosis-help systems. Also, a benchmark analysis is conducted across all fine-tuned models, studying them according to performance indices such as model complexity and size, AUROC density and inference time. This in-depth analysis allows a rigorous comparison between model characteristics, and is useful for giving practioners important trademarks for prospective applications and deployments.

Estimation of Abundance and Distribution of SaltMarsh Plants from Images Using Deep Learning

Jayant Parashar, Suchendra Bhandarkar, Jacob Simon, Brian Hopkinson, Steven Pennings
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; CNN-based approaches to automated plant identification and localization in salt marsh images

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Recent advances in computer vision and machine learning, most notably deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), are exploited to identify and localize various plant species in salt marsh images. Three different approaches are explored that provide estimations of abundance and spatial distribution at varying levels of granularity in terms of spatial resolution. In the coarsest-grained approach, CNNs are tasked with identifying which of six plant species are present/absent in large patches within the salt marsh images. CNNs with diverse topological properties and attention mechanisms are shown capable of providing accurate estimations with >90 % precision and recall in the case of the more abundant plant species whereas the performance declines for less common plant species. Estimation of percent cover of each plant species is performed at a finer spatial resolution, where smaller image patches are extracted and the CNNs tasked with identifying the plant species or substrate at the center of the image patch. For the percent cover estimation task, the CNNs are observed to exhibit a performance profile similar to that for the presence/absence estimation task, but with an ~ 5-10% reduction in precision and recall. Finally, fine-grained estimation of the spatial distribution of the various plant species is performed via semantic segmentation. The Deeplab-V3 semantic segmentation architecture is observed to provide very accurate estimations for abundant plant species; however,a significant degradation in performance is observed in the case of less abundant plant species and, in extreme cases, rare plant classes are seen to be ignored entirely. Overall, a clear trade-off is observed between the CNN estimation quality and the spatial resolution of the underlying estimation thereby offering guidance for ecological applications of CNN-based approaches to automated plant identification and localization in salt marsh images.

S2I-Bird: Sound-To-Image Generation of Bird Species Using Generative Adversarial Networks

Joo Yong Shim, Joongheon Kim, Jong-Kook Kim
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T3.8

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Auto-TLDR; Generating bird images from sound using conditional generative adversarial networks

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Generating images from sound is a challenging task. This paper proposes a novel deep learning model that generates bird images from their corresponding sound information. Our proposed model includes a sound encoder in order to extract suitable feature representations from audio recordings, and then it generates bird images that corresponds to its calls using conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs) with auxiliary classifiers. We demonstrate that our model produces better image generation results which outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in a similar context.

A Systematic Investigation on Deep Architectures for Automatic Skin Lesions Classification

Pierluigi Carcagni, Marco Leo, Andrea Cuna, Giuseppe Celeste, Cosimo Distante
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T5.4

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Auto-TLDR; RegNet: Deep Investigation of Convolutional Neural Networks for Automatic Classification of Skin Lesions

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Computer vision-based techniques are more and more employed in healthcare and medical fields nowadays in order, principally, to be as a support to the experienced medical staff to help them to make a quick and correct diagnosis. One of the hot topics in this arena concerns the automatic classification of skin lesions. Several promising works exist about it, mainly leveraging Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), but proposed pipeline mainly rely on complex data preprocessing and there is no systematic investigation about how available deep models can actually reach the accuracy needed for real applications. In order to overcome these drawbacks, in this work, an end-to-end pipeline is introduced and some of the most recent Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) architectures are included in it and compared on the largest common benchmark dataset recently introduced. To this aim, for the first time in this application context, a new network design paradigm, namely RegNet, has been exploited to get the best models among a population of configurations. The paper introduces a threefold level of contribution and novelty with respect the previous literature: the deep investigation of several CNN architectures driving to a consistent improvement of the lesions recognition accuracy, the exploitation of a new network design paradigm able to study the behavior of populations of models and a deep discussion about pro and cons of each analyzed method paving the path towards new research lines.

Multi-Attribute Learning with Highly Imbalanced Data

Lady Viviana Beltran Beltran, Mickaël Coustaty, Nicholas Journet, Juan C. Caicedo, Antoine Doucet
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Data Imbalance in Multi-Attribute Deep Learning Models: Adaptation to face each one of the problems derived from imbalance

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Data is one of the most important keys for success when studying a simple or a complex phenomenon. With the use of deep-learning exploding and its democratization, non-computer science experts may struggle to use highly complex deep learning architectures, even when straightforward models offer them suitable performances. In this article, we study the specific and common problem of data imbalance in real databases as most of the bad performance problems are due to the data itself. We review two points: first, when the data contains different levels of imbalance. Classical imbalanced learning strategies cannot be directly applied when using multi-attribute deep learning models, i.e., multi-task and multi-label architectures. Therefore, one of our contributions is our proposed adaptations to face each one of the problems derived from imbalance. Second, we demonstrate that with little to no imbalance, straightforward deep learning models work well. However, for non-experts, these models can be seen as black boxes, where all the effort is put in pre-processing the data. To simplify the problem, we performed the classification task ignoring information that is costly to extract, such as part localization which is widely used in the state of the art of attribute classification. We make use of a widely known attribute database, CUB-200-2011 - CUB as our main use case due to its deeply imbalanced nature, along with two better structured databases: celebA and Awa2. All of them contain multi-attribute annotations. The results of highly fine-grained attribute learning over CUB demonstrate that in the presence of imbalance, by using our proposed strategies is possible to have competitive results against the state of the art, while taking advantage of multi-attribute deep learning models. We also report results for two better-structured databases over which our models over-perform the state of the art.

Contextual Classification Using Self-Supervised Auxiliary Models for Deep Neural Networks

Sebastian Palacio, Philipp Engler, Jörn Hees, Andreas Dengel
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Self-Supervised Autogenous Learning for Deep Neural Networks

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Classification problems solved with deep neural networks (DNNs) typically rely on a closed world paradigm, and optimize over a single objective (e.g., minimization of the cross- entropy loss). This setup dismisses all kinds of supporting signals that can be used to reinforce the existence or absence of particular patterns. The increasing need for models that are interpretable by design makes the inclusion of said contextual signals a crucial necessity. To this end, we introduce the notion of Self-Supervised Autogenous Learning (SSAL). A SSAL objective is realized through one or more additional targets that are derived from the original supervised classification task, following architectural principles found in multi-task learning. SSAL branches impose low-level priors into the optimization process (e.g., grouping). The ability of using SSAL branches during inference, allow models to converge faster, focusing on a richer set of class-relevant features. We equip state-of-the-art DNNs with SSAL objectives and report consistent improvements for all of them on CIFAR100 and Imagenet. We show that SSAL models outperform similar state-of-the-art methods focused on contextual loss functions, auxiliary branches and hierarchical priors.

Predicting Chemical Properties Using Self-Attention Multi-Task Learning Based on SMILES Representation

Sangrak Lim, Yong Oh Lee
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Self-attention based Transformer-Variant Model for Chemical Compound Properties Prediction

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In the computational prediction of chemical compound properties, molecular descriptors and fingerprints encoded to low dimensional vectors are used. The selection of proper molecular descriptors and fingerprints is both important and challenging as the performance of such models is highly dependent on descriptors. To overcome this challenge, natural language processing models that utilize simplified molecular input line entry system as input were studied, and several transformer variant models achieved superior results when compared with conventional methods. In this study, we explored the structural differences of the transformer-variant model and proposed a new self-attention based model. The representation learning performance of the self-attention module was evaluated in a multi-task learning environment using imbalanced chemical datasets. The experiment results showed that our model achieved competitive outcomes on several benchmark datasets. The source code of our experiment is available at https://github.com/arwhirang/sa-mtl and the dataset is available from the same URL.

Uncertainty-Aware Data Augmentation for Food Recognition

Eduardo Aguilar, Bhalaji Nagarajan, Rupali Khatun, Marc Bolaños, Petia Radeva
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; Data Augmentation for Food Recognition Using Epistemic Uncertainty

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Food recognition has recently attracted attention of many researchers. However, high food ambiguity, inter-class variability and intra-class similarity define a real challenge for the Deep learning and Computer Vision algorithms. In order to improve their performance, it is necessary to better understand what the model learns and, from this, to determine the type of data that should be additionally included for being the most beneficial to the training procedure. In this paper, we propose a new data augmentation strategy that estimates and uses the epistemic uncertainty to guide the model training. The method follows an active learning framework, where the new synthetic images are generated from the hard to classify real ones present in the training data based on the epistemic uncertainty. Hence, it allows the food recognition algorithm to focus on difficult images in order to learn their discriminatives features. On the other hand, avoiding data generation from images that do not contribute to the recognition makes it faster and more efficient. We show that the proposed method allows to improve food recognition and provides a better trade-off between micro- and macro-recall measures.

Confidence Calibration for Deep Renal Biopsy Immunofluorescence Image Classification

Federico Pollastri, Juan Maroñas, Federico Bolelli, Giulia Ligabue, Roberto Paredes, Riccardo Magistroni, Costantino Grana
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; A Probabilistic Convolutional Neural Network for Immunofluorescence Classification in Renal Biopsy

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With this work we tackle immunofluorescence classification in renal biopsy, employing state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks. In this setting, the aim of the probabilistic model is to assist an expert practitioner towards identifying the location pattern of antibody deposits within a glomerulus. Since modern neural networks often provide overconfident outputs, we stress the importance of having a reliable prediction, demonstrating that Temperature Scaling, a recently introduced re-calibration technique, can be successfully applied to immunofluorescence classification in renal biopsy. Experimental results demonstrate that the designed model yields good accuracy on the specific task, and that Temperature Scaling is able to provide reliable probabilities, which are highly valuable for such a task given the low inter-rater agreement.

Unsupervised Multi-Task Domain Adaptation

Shih-Min Yang, Mei-Chen Yeh
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Multi-task Learning for Image Recognition

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With abundant labeled data, deep convolutional neural networks have shown great success in various image recognition tasks. However, these models are often less powerful when applied to novel datasets due to a phenomenon known as domain shift. Unsupervised domain adaptation methods aim to address this problem, allowing deep models trained on the labeled source domain to be used on a different target domain (without labels). In this paper, we investigate whether the generalization ability of an unsupervised domain adaptation method can be improved through multi-task learning, with learned features required to be both domain invariant and discriminative for multiple different but relevant tasks. Experiments evaluating two fundamental recognition tasks---including image recognition and segmentation--- show that the generalization ability empowered by multi-task learning may not benefit recognition when the model is directly applied on the target domain, but the multi-task setting can boost the performance of state-of-the-art unsupervised domain adaptation methods by a non-negligible margin.

The Color Out of Space: Learning Self-Supervised Representations for Earth Observation Imagery

Stefano Vincenzi, Angelo Porrello, Pietro Buzzega, Marco Cipriano, Pietro Fronte, Roberto Cuccu, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Simone Calderara
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Satellite Image Representation Learning for Remote Sensing

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The recent growth in the number of satellite images fosters the development of effective deep-learning techniques for Remote Sensing (RS). However, their full potential is untapped due to the lack of large annotated datasets. Such a problem is usually countered by fine-tuning a feature extractor that is previously trained on the ImageNet dataset. Unfortunately, the domain of natural images differs from the RS one, which hinders the final performance. In this work, we propose to learn meaningful representations from satellite imagery, leveraging its high-dimensionality spectral bands to reconstruct the visible colors. We conduct experiments on land cover classification (BigEarthNet) and West Nile Virus detection, showing that colorization is a solid pretext task for training a feature extractor. Furthermore, we qualitatively observe that guesses based on natural images and colorization rely on different parts of the input. This paves the way to an ensemble model that eventually outperforms both the above-mentioned techniques.

Improving Robotic Grasping on Monocular Images Via Multi-Task Learning and Positional Loss

William Prew, Toby Breckon, Magnus Bordewich, Ulrik Beierholm
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.11

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Auto-TLDR; Improving grasping performance from monocularcolour images in an end-to-end CNN architecture with multi-task learning

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In this paper we introduce two methods of improv-ing real-time objecting grasping performance from monocularcolour images in an end-to-end CNN architecture. The first isthe addition of an auxiliary task during model training (multi-task learning). Our multi-task CNN model improves graspingperformance from a baseline average of 72.04% to 78.14% onthe large Jacquard grasping dataset when performing a supple-mentary depth reconstruction task. The second is introducinga positional loss function that emphasises loss per pixel forsecondary parameters (gripper angle and width) only on points ofan object where a successful grasp can take place. This increasesperformance from a baseline average of 72.04% to 78.92% aswell as reducing the number of training epochs required. Thesemethods can be also performed in tandem resulting in a furtherperformance increase to 79.12%, while maintaining sufficientinference speed to enable processing at 50FPS

Deep Transfer Learning for Alzheimer’s Disease Detection

Nicole Cilia, Claudio De Stefano, Francesco Fontanella, Claudio Marrocco, Mario Molinara, Alessandra Scotto Di Freca
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.9

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Auto-TLDR; Automatic Detection of Handwriting Alterations for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis using Dynamic Features

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Early detection of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is essential in order to initiate therapies that can reduce the effects of such a disease, improving both life quality and life expectancy of patients. Among all the activities carried out in our daily life, handwriting seems one of the first to be influenced by the arise of neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, the analysis of handwriting and the study of its alterations has become of great interest in this research field in order to make a diagnosis as early as possible. In recent years, many studies have tried to use classification algorithms applied to handwritings to implement decision support systems for AD diagnosis. A key issue for the use of these techniques is the detection of effective features, that allow the system to distinguish the natural handwriting alterations due to age, from those caused by neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, many interesting results have been published in the literature in which the features have been typically selected by hand, generally considering the dynamics of the handwriting process in order to detect motor disorders closely related to AD. Features directly derived from handwriting generation models can be also very helpful for AD diagnosis. It should be remarked, however, that the above features do not consider changes in the shape of handwritten traces, which may occur as a consequence of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the correlation among shape alterations and changes in the dynamics of the handwriting process. Moving from these considerations, the aim of this study is to verify if the combined use of both shape and dynamic features allows a decision support system to improve performance for AD diagnosis. To this purpose, starting from a database of on-line handwriting samples, we generated for each of them a synthetic off-line colour image, where the colour of each elementary trait encodes, in the three RGB channels, the dynamic information associated to that trait. Finally, we exploited the capability of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) to automatically extract features from raw images. The experimental comparison of the results obtained by using standard features and features extracted according the above procedure, confirmed the effectiveness of our approach.

Recursive Convolutional Neural Networks for Epigenomics

Aikaterini Symeonidi, Anguelos Nicolaou, Frank Johannes, Vincent Christlein
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.1

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Auto-TLDR; Recursive Convolutional Neural Networks for Epigenomic Data Analysis

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Deep learning for epigenomic data analysis has demonstrated to be very promising for analysis of genomic and epigenomic data. In this paper we introduce the use of Recursive Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNN) as tool for epigenomic data analysis. We focus on the task of predicting gene expression from the intensity of histone modifications. The proposed RCNN architecture can be applied on data of an arbitrary size and has a single meta-parameter that quantifies the models capacity making it flexible for experimenting. The proposed architecture outperforms state-of-the-art systems while having several orders of magnitude fewer parameters.

A Comparison of Neural Network Approaches for Melanoma Classification

Maria Frasca, Michele Nappi, Michele Risi, Genoveffa Tortora, Alessia Auriemma Citarella
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; Classification of Melanoma Using Deep Neural Network Methodologies

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Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and it is diagnosed mainly visually, starting from initial clinical screening and followed by dermoscopic analysis, biopsy and histopathological examination. A dermatologist’s recognition of melanoma may be subject to errors and may take some time to diagnose it. In this regard, deep learning can be useful in the study and classification of skin cancer. In particular, by classifying images with Deep Neural Network methodologies, it is possible to obtain comparable or even superior results compared to those of dermatologists. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the classification of melanoma by adopting different deep learning techniques applied to a common dataset, composed of images from the ISIC dataset and consisting of different types of skin diseases, including melanoma on which we applied a specific pre-processing phase. In particular, a comparison of the results is performed in order to select the best effective neural network to be applied to the problem of recognition and classification of melanoma. Moreover, we also evaluate the impact of the pre- processing phase on the final classification. Different metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity have been selected to assess the goodness of the adopted neural networks and compare them also with the manual classification of dermatologists.

Automatic Semantic Segmentation of Structural Elements related to the Spinal Cord in the Lumbar Region by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Jhon Jairo Sáenz Gamboa, Maria De La Iglesia-Vaya, Jon Ander Gómez
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T5.6

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Auto-TLDR; Semantic Segmentation of Lumbar Spine Using Convolutional Neural Networks

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This work addresses the problem of automatically segmenting the MR images corresponding to the lumbar spine. The purpose is to detect and delimit the different structural elements like vertebrae, intervertebral discs, nerves, blood vessels, etc. This task is known as semantic segmentation. The approach proposed in this work is based on convolutional neural networks whose output is a mask where each pixel from the input image is classified into one of the possible classes. Classes were defined by radiologists and correspond to structural elements and tissues. The proposed network architectures are variants of the U-Net. Several complementary blocks were used to define the variants: spatial attention models, deep supervision and multi-kernels at input, this last block type is based on the idea of inception. Those architectures which got the best results are described in this paper, and their results are discussed. Two of the proposed architectures outperform the standard U-Net used as baseline.

A Systematic Investigation on End-To-End Deep Recognition of Grocery Products in the Wild

Marco Leo, Pierluigi Carcagni, Cosimo Distante
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Automatic Recognition of Products on grocery shelf images using Convolutional Neural Networks

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Automatic recognition of products on grocery shelf images is a new and attractive topic in computer vision and machine learning since, it can be exploited in different application areas. This paper introduces a complete end-to-end pipeline (without preliminary radiometric and spatial transformations usually involved while dealing with the considered issue) and it provides a systematic investigation of recent machine learning models based on convolutional neural networks for addressing the product recognition task by exploiting the proposed pipeline on a recent challenging grocery product dataset. The investigated models were never been used in this context: they derive from the successful and more generic object recognition task and have been properly tuned to address this specific issue. Besides, also ensembles of nets built by most advanced theoretical fundaments have been taken into account. Gathered classification results were very encouraging since the recognition accuracy has been improved up to 15\% with respect to the leading approaches in the state of art on the same dataset. A discussion about the pros and cons of the investigated solutions are discussed by paving the path towards new research lines.

Deep Gait Relative Attribute Using a Signed Quadratic Contrastive Loss

Yuta Hayashi, Shehata Allam, Yasushi Makihara, Daigo Muramatsu, Yasushi Yagi
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; Signal-Contrastive Loss for Gait Attributes Estimation

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This paper presents a deep learning-based method to estimate gait attributes (e.g., stately, cool, relax, etc.). Similarly to the existing studies on relative attribute, human perception-based annotations on the gait attributes are given to pairs of gait videos (i.e., the first one is better, tie, and the second one is better), and the relative annotations are utilized to train a ranking model of the gait attribute. More specifically, we design a Siamese (i.e., two-stream) network which takes a pair of gait inputs and output gait attribute score for each. We then introduce a suitable loss function called a signed contrastive loss to train the network parameters with the relative annotation. Unlike the existing loss functions for learning to rank does not inherent a nice property of a quadratic contrastive loss, the proposed signed quadratic contrastive loss function inherents the nice property. The quantitative evaluation results reveal that the proposed method shows better or comparable accuracies of relative attribute prediction against the baseline methods.

Dealing with Scarce Labelled Data: Semi-Supervised Deep Learning with Mix Match for Covid-19 Detection Using Chest X-Ray Images

Saúl Calderón Ramirez, Raghvendra Giri, Shengxiang Yang, Armaghan Moemeni, Mario Umaña, David Elizondo, Jordina Torrents-Barrena, Miguel A. Molina-Cabello
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Semi-supervised Deep Learning for Covid-19 Detection using Chest X-rays

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Coronavirus (Covid-19) is spreading fast, infecting people through contact in various forms including droplets from sneezing and coughing. Therefore, the detection of infected subjects in an early, quick and cheap manner is urgent. Currently available tests are scarce and limited to people in danger of serious illness. The application of deep learning to chest X-ray images for Covid-19 detection is an attractive approach. However, this technology usually relies on the availability of large labelled datasets, a requirement hard to meet in the context of a virus outbreak. To overcome this challenge, a semi-supervised deep learning model using both labelled and unlabelled data is proposed. We developed and tested a semi-supervised deep learning framework based on the Mix Match architecture to classify chest X-rays into Covid-19, pneumonia and healthy cases. The presented approach was calibrated using two publicly available datasets. The results show an accuracy increase of around $15\%$ under low labelled / unlabelled data ratio. This indicates that our semi-supervised framework can help improve performance levels towards Covid-19 detection when the amount of high-quality labelled data is scarce. Also, we introduce a semi-supervised deep learning boost coefficient which is meant to ease the scalability of our approach and performance comparison.

Weight Estimation from an RGB-D Camera in Top-View Configuration

Marco Mameli, Marina Paolanti, Nicola Conci, Filippo Tessaro, Emanuele Frontoni, Primo Zingaretti
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Top-View Weight Estimation using Deep Neural Networks

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The development of so-called soft-biometrics aims at providing information related to the physical and behavioural characteristics of a person. This paper focuses on bodyweight estimation based on the observation from a top-view RGB-D camera. In fact, the capability to estimate the weight of a person can be of help in many different applications, from health-related scenarios to business intelligence and retail analytics. To deal with this issue, a TVWE (Top-View Weight Estimation) framework is proposed with the aim of predicting the weight. The approach relies on the adoption of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) that have been trained on depth data. Each network has also been modified in its top section to replace classification with prediction inference. The performance of five state-of-art DNNs has been compared, namely VGG16, ResNet, Inception, DenseNet and Efficient-Net. In addition, a convolutional auto-encoder has also been included for completeness. Considering the limited literature in this domain, the TVWE framework has been evaluated on a new publicly available dataset: “VRAI Weight estimation Dataset”, which also collects, for each subject, labels related to weight, gender, and height. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed methods are suitable for this task, bringing different and significant insights for the application of the solution in different domains.

Partially Supervised Multi-Task Network for Single-View Dietary Assessment

Ya Lu, Thomai Stathopoulou, Stavroula Mougiakakou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Food Volume Estimation from a Single Food Image via Geometric Understanding and Semantic Prediction

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Food volume estimation is an essential step in the pipeline of dietary assessment and demands the precise depth estimation of the food surface and table plane. Existing methods based on computer vision require either multi-image input or additional depth maps, reducing convenience of implementation and practical significance. Despite the recent advances in unsupervised depth estimation from a single image, the achieved performance in the case of large texture-less areas needs to be improved. In this paper, we propose a network architecture that jointly performs geometric understanding (i.e., depth prediction and 3D plane estimation) and semantic prediction on a single food image, enabling a robust and accurate food volume estimation regardless of the texture characteristics of the target plane. For the training of the network, only monocular videos with semantic ground truth are required, while the depth map and 3D plane ground truth are no longer needed. Experimental results on two separate food image databases demonstrate that our method performs robustly on texture-less scenarios and is superior to unsupervised networks and structure from motion based approaches, while it achieves comparable performance to fully-supervised methods.

EasiECG: A Novel Inter-Patient Arrhythmia Classification Method Using ECG Waves

Chuanqi Han, Ruoran Huang, Fang Yu, Xi Huang, Li Cui
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T5.3

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Auto-TLDR; EasiECG: Attention-based Convolution Factorization Machines for Arrhythmia Classification

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Abstract—In an ECG record, the PQRST waves are of important medical significance which provide ample information reflecting heartbeat activities. In this paper, we propose a novel arrhythmia classification method namely EasiECG, characterized by simplicity and accuracy. Compared with other works, the EasiECG takes the configuration of these five key waves into account and does not require complicated feature engineering. Meanwhile, an additional encoding of the extracted features makes the EasiECG applicable even on samples with missing waves. To automatically capture interactions that contribute to the classification among the processed features, a novel adapted classification model named Attention-based Convolution Factorization Machines (ACFM) is proposed. In detail, the ACFM can learn both linear and high-order interactions from linear regression and convolution on outer-product feature interaction maps, respectively. After that, an attention mechanism implemented in the model can further assign different importance of these interactions when predicting certain types of heartbeats. To validate the effectiveness and practicability of our EasiECG, extensive experiments of inter-patient paradigm on the benchmark MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are conducted. To tackle the imbalanced sample problem in this dataset, an ingenious loss function: focal loss is adopted when training. The experiment results show that our method is competitive compared with other state-of-the-arts, especially in classifying the Supraventricular ectopic beats. Besides, the EasiECG achieves an overall accuracy of 87.6% on samples with a missing wave in the related experiment, demonstrating the robustness of our proposed method.

Detecting Marine Species in Echograms Via Traditional, Hybrid, and Deep Learning Frameworks

Porto Marques Tunai, Alireza Rezvanifar, Melissa Cote, Alexandra Branzan Albu, Kaan Ersahin, Todd Mudge, Stephane Gauthier
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.1

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Auto-TLDR; End-to-End Deep Learning for Echogram Interpretation of Marine Species in Echograms

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This paper provides a comprehensive comparative study of traditional, hybrid, and deep learning (DL) methods for detecting marine species in echograms. Acoustic backscatter data obtained from multi-frequency echosounders is visualized as echograms and typically interpreted by marine biologists via manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming. Challenges related to automatic echogram interpretation are the variable size and acoustic properties of the biological targets (marine life), along with significant inter-class similarities. Our study explores and compares three types of approaches that cover the entire range of machine learning methods. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that an end-to-end DL-based framework, that can be readily scaled to accommodate new species, is overall preferable to other learning approaches for echogram interpretation, even when only a limited number of annotated training samples is available.

One-Shot Learning for Acoustic Identification of Bird Species in Non-Stationary Environments

Michelangelo Acconcjaioco, Stavros Ntalampiras
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T5.4

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Auto-TLDR; One-shot Learning in the Bioacoustics Domain using Siamese Neural Networks

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This work introduces the one-shot learning paradigm in the computational bioacoustics domain. Even though, most of the related literature assumes availability of data characterizing the entire class dictionary of the problem at hand, that is rarely true as a habitat's species composition is only known up to a certain extent. Thus, the problem needs to be addressed by methodologies able to cope with non-stationarity. To this end, we propose a framework able to detect changes in the class dictionary and incorporate new classes on the fly. We design an one-shot learning architecture composed of a Siamese Neural Network operating in the logMel spectrogram space. We extensively examine the proposed approach on two datasets of various bird species using suitable figures of merit. Interestingly, such a learning scheme exhibits state of the art performance, while taking into account extreme non-stationarity cases.

Adversarial Encoder-Multi-Task-Decoder for Multi-Stage Processes

Andre Mendes, Julian Togelius, Leandro Dos Santos Coelho
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-Task Learning and Semi-Supervised Learning for Multi-Stage Processes

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In multi-stage processes, decisions occur in an ordered sequence of stages. Early stages usually have more observations with general information (easier/cheaper to collect), while later stages have fewer observations but more specific data. This situation can be represented by a dual funnel structure, in which the sample size decreases from one stage to the other while the information increases. Training classifiers in this scenario is challenging since information in the early stages may not contain distinct patterns to learn (underfitting). In contrast, the small sample size in later stages can cause overfitting. We address both cases by introducing a framework that combines adversarial autoencoders (AAE), multi-task learning (MTL), and multi-label semi-supervised learning (MLSSL). We improve the decoder of the AAE with an MTL component so it can jointly reconstruct the original input and use feature nets to predict the features for the next stages. We also introduce a sequence constraint in the output of an MLSSL classifier to guarantee the sequential pattern in the predictions. Using real-world data from different domains (selection process, medical diagnosis), we show that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

Cross-Lingual Text Image Recognition Via Multi-Task Sequence to Sequence Learning

Zhuo Chen, Fei Yin, Xu-Yao Zhang, Qing Yang, Cheng-Lin Liu
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T4.2

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Auto-TLDR; Cross-Lingual Text Image Recognition with Multi-task Learning

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This paper considers recognizing texts shown in a source language and translating into a target language, without generating the intermediate source language text image recognition results. We call this problem Cross-Lingual Text Image Recognition (CLTIR). To solve this problem, we propose a multi-task system containing a main task of CLTIR and an auxiliary task of Mono-Lingual Text Image Recognition (MLTIR) simultaneously. Two different sequence to sequence learning methods, a convolution based attention model and a BLSTM model with CTC, are adopted for these tasks respectively. We evaluate the system on a newly collected Chinese-English bilingual movie subtitle image dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the multi-task learning framework performs superiorly in both languages.

Stratified Multi-Task Learning for Robust Spotting of Scene Texts

Kinjal Dasgupta, Sudip Das, Ujjwal Bhattacharya
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T 4.2

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Auto-TLDR; Feature Representation Block for Multi-task Learning of Scene Text

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Gaining control over the dynamics of multi-task learning should help to unlock the potential of the deep network to a great extent. In the existing multi-task learning (MTL) approaches of deep network, all the parameters of its feature encoding part are subjected to adjustments corresponding to each of the underlying sub-tasks. On the other hand, different functional areas of human brain are responsible for distinct functions such as the Broca's area of the cerebrum is responsible for speech formation whereas its Wernicke's area is related to the language development etc. Inspired by this fact, in the present study, we propose to introduce a block (termed as Feature Representation Block) of connection weights spanned over a few successive layers of a deep multi-task learning architecture and stratify the same into distinct subsets for their adjustments exclusively corresponding to different sub-tasks. Additionally, we have introduced a novel regularization component for controlled training of this Feature Representation Block. The purpose of the development of this learning framework is efficient end-to-end recognition of scene texts. Simulation results of the proposed strategy on various benchmark scene text datasets such as ICDAR 2015, ICDAR 2017 MLT, COCO-Text and MSRA-TD500 have improved respective SOTA performance.

Shape Consistent 2D Keypoint Estimation under Domain Shift

Levi Vasconcelos, Massimiliano Mancini, Davide Boscaini, Barbara Caputo, Elisa Ricci
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Adaptation for Keypoint Prediction under Domain Shift

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Recent unsupervised domain adaptation methods based on deep architectures have shown remarkable performance not only in traditional classification tasks but also in more complex problems involving structured predictions (e.g. semantic segmentation, depth estimation). Following this trend, in this paper we present a novel deep adaptation framework for estimating keypoints under \textit{domain shift}, i.e. when the training (\textit{source}) and the test (\textit{target}) images significantly differ in terms of visual appearance. Our method seamlessly combines three different components: feature alignment, adversarial training and self-supervision. Specifically, our deep architecture leverages from domain-specific distribution alignment layers to perform target adaptation at the feature level. Furthermore, a novel loss is proposed which combines an adversarial term for ensuring aligned predictions in the output space and a geometric consistency term which guarantees coherent predictions between a target sample and its perturbed version. Our extensive experimental evaluation conducted on three publicly available benchmarks shows that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods in the 2D keypoint prediction task.

Deep Multi-Task Learning for Facial Expression Recognition and Synthesis Based on Selective Feature Sharing

Rui Zhao, Tianshan Liu, Jun Xiao, P. K. Daniel Lun, Kin-Man Lam
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.4

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-task Learning for Facial Expression Recognition and Synthesis

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Multi-task learning is an effective learning strategy for deep-learning-based facial expression recognition tasks. However, most existing methods take into limited consideration the feature selection, when transferring information between different tasks, which may lead to task interference when training the multi-task networks. To address this problem, we propose a novel selective feature-sharing method, and establish a multi-task network for facial expression recognition and facial expression synthesis. The proposed method can effectively transfer beneficial features between different tasks, while filtering out useless and harmful information. Moreover, we employ the facial expression synthesis task to enlarge and balance the training dataset to further enhance the generalization ability of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on those commonly used facial expression recognition benchmarks, which makes it a potential solution to real-world facial expression recognition problems.

Stochastic Label Refinery: Toward Better Target Label Distribution

Xi Fang, Jiancheng Yang, Bingbing Ni
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Stochastic Label Refinery for Deep Supervised Learning

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This paper proposes a simple yet effective strategy for improving deep supervised learning, named Stochastic Label Refinery (SLR), by refining training labels to more informative labels. When training a neural network, target distributions (or ground-truth) are typically "hard", which means the target label of each category consists of only 0 and 1. However, the fixed "hard" target distributions do not capture association between categories or that between objects. In this study, instead of using the hard target distributions, we iteratively generate "soft" target label distributions for training the neural networks, which leads to better performances. The soft target distributions are obtained via an Expectation-Maximization (EM) iteration, where the "true" target distributions and the learned models are regarded as hidden variables. In E step, the models are optimized to approximate the target distributions on stochastic splits of training data; In M step, the target distributions are updated with predicted pseudo-label on leave-out splits. Extensive experiments on classification and ordinal regression tasks, empirically prove that the refined target distribution consistently leads to considerable performance improvements even applied on competitive baselines. Notably, in DeepDR 2020 Diabetic Retinopathy Grading (DeepDRiD) challenge, our method improves the quadratic weighted kappa on official validation set from 0.8247 to 0.8348 and achieves a state-of-the-art score on online test set. The proposed SLR technique is easy to implement and practically applicable. The code will be open sourced soon.

MetaMix: Improved Meta-Learning with Interpolation-based Consistency Regularization

Yangbin Chen, Yun Ma, Tom Ko, Jianping Wang, Qing Li
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; MetaMix: A Meta-Agnostic Meta-Learning Algorithm for Few-Shot Classification

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Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning (MAML) and its variants are popular few-shot classification methods. They train an initializer across a variety of sampled learning tasks (also known as episodes) such that the initialized model can adapt quickly to new tasks. However, within each episode, current MAML-based algorithms have limitations in forming generalizable decision boundaries using only a few training examples. In this paper, we propose an approach called MetaMix. It generates virtual examples within each episode to regularize the backbone models. MetaMix can be applied in any of the MAML-based algorithms and learn the decision boundaries which are more generalizable to new tasks. Experiments on the mini-ImageNet, CUB, and FC100 datasets show that MetaMix improves the performance of MAML-based algorithms and achieves the state-of-the-art result when applied in Meta-Transfer Learning.

Neuron-Based Network Pruning Based on Majority Voting

Ali Alqahtani, Xianghua Xie, Ehab Essa, Mark W. Jones
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Large-Scale Neural Network Pruning using Majority Voting

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The achievement of neural networks in a variety of applications is accompanied by a dramatic increase in computational costs and memory requirements. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to simultaneously identify the critical neurons and prune the model during training without involving any pre-training or fine-tuning procedures. Unlike existing methods, which accomplish this task in a greedy fashion, we propose a majority voting technique to compare the activation values among neurons and assign a voting score to quantitatively evaluate their importance.This mechanism helps to effectively reduce model complexity by eliminating the less influential neurons and aims to determine a subset of the whole model that can represent the reference model with much fewer parameters within the training process. Experimental results show that majority voting efficiently compresses the network with no drop in model accuracy, pruning more than 79\% of the original model parameters on CIFAR10 and more than 91\% of the original parameters on MNIST. Moreover, we show that with our proposed method, sparse models can be further pruned into even smaller models by removing more than 60\% of the parameters, whilst preserving the reference model accuracy.

A Multi-Task Multi-View Based Multi-Objective Clustering Algorithm

Sayantan Mitra, Sriparna Saha
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; MTMV-MO: Multi-task multi-view multi-objective optimization for multi-task clustering

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In recent years, multi-view multi-task clustering has received much attention. There are several real-life problems that involve both multi-view clustering and multi-task clustering, i.e., the tasks are closely related, and each task can be analyzed using multiple views. Traditional multi-task multi-view clustering algorithms use single-objective optimization-based approaches and cannot apply too-many regularization terms. However, these problems are inherently some multi-objective optimization problems because conflict may be between different views within a given task and also between different tasks, necessitating a trade-off. Based on these observations, in this paper, we have proposed a novel multi-task multi-view multi-objective optimization (MTMV-MO) algorithm which simultaneously optimizes three objectives, i.e., within-view task relation, within-task view relation and the quality of the clusters obtained. The proposed methodology (MTMV-MO) is evaluated on four different datasets and the results are compared with five state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) and Classification Accuracy (%CoA). MTMV-MO illustrates an improvement of 1.5-2% in terms of ARI and 4-5% in terms of %CoA compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

Verifying the Causes of Adversarial Examples

Honglin Li, Yifei Fan, Frieder Ganz, Tony Yezzi, Payam Barnaghi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Exploring the Causes of Adversarial Examples in Neural Networks

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The robustness of neural networks is challenged by adversarial examples that contain almost imperceptible perturbations to inputs which mislead a classifier to incorrect outputs in high confidence. Limited by the extreme difficulty in examining a high-dimensional image space thoroughly, research on explaining and justifying the causes of adversarial examples falls behind studies on attacks and defenses. In this paper, we present a collection of potential causes of adversarial examples and verify (or partially verify) them through carefully-designed controlled experiments. The major causes of adversarial examples include model linearity, one-sum constraint, and geometry of the categories. To control the effect of those causes, multiple techniques are applied such as $L_2$ normalization, replacement of loss functions, construction of reference datasets, and novel models using multi-layer perceptron probabilistic neural networks (MLP-PNN) and density estimation (DE). Our experiment results show that geometric factors tend to be more direct causes and statistical factors magnify the phenomenon, especially for assigning high prediction confidence. We hope this paper will inspire more studies to rigorously investigate the root causes of adversarial examples, which in turn provide useful guidance on designing more robust models.

Learn to Segment Retinal Lesions and Beyond

Qijie Wei, Xirong Li, Weihong Yu, Xiao Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Bojie Hu, Bin Mo, Di Gong, Ning Chen, Dayong Ding, Youxin Chen
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-task Lesion Segmentation and Disease Classification for Diabetic Retinopathy Grading

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Towards automated retinal screening, this paper makes an endeavor to simultaneously achieve pixel-level retinal lesion segmentation and image-level disease classification. Such a multi-task approach is crucial for accurate and clinically interpretable disease diagnosis. Prior art is insufficient due to three challenges, i.e., lesions lacking objective boundaries, clinical importance of lesions irrelevant to their size, and the lack of one-to-one correspondence between lesion and disease classes. This paper attacks the three challenges in the context of diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading. We propose Lesion-Net, a new variant of fully convolutional networks, with its expansive path re- designed to tackle the first challenge. A dual Dice loss that leverages both semantic segmentation and image classification losses is introduced to resolve the second challenge. Lastly, we build a multi-task network that employs Lesion-Net as a side- attention branch for both DR grading and result interpretation. A set of 12K fundus images is manually segmented by 45 ophthalmologists for 8 DR-related lesions, resulting in 290K manual segments in total. Extensive experiments on this large- scale dataset show that our proposed approach surpasses the prior art for multiple tasks including lesion segmentation, lesion classification and DR grading.

Multi-Label Contrastive Focal Loss for Pedestrian Attribute Recognition

Xiaoqiang Zheng, Zhenxia Yu, Lin Chen, Fan Zhu, Shilong Wang
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-label Contrastive Focal Loss for Pedestrian Attribute Recognition

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Pedestrian Attribute Recognition (PAR) has received extensive attention during the past few years. With the advances of deep constitutional neural networks (CNNs), the performance of PAR has been significantly improved. Existing methods tend to acquire attribute-specific features by designing various complex network structures with additional modules. Such additional modules, however, dramatically increase the number of parameters. Meanwhile, the problems of class imbalance and hard attribute retrieving remain underestimated in PAR. In this paper, we explore the optimization mechanism of the training processing to account for these problems and propose a new loss function called Multi-label Contrastive Focal Loss (MCFL). This proposed MCFL emphasizes the hard and minority attributes by using a separated re-weighting mechanism for different positive and negative classes to alleviate the impact of the imbalance. MCFL is also able to enlarge the gaps between the intra-class of multi-label attributes, to force CNNs to extract more subtle discriminative features. We evaluate the proposed MCFL on three large public pedestrian datasets, including RAP, PA-100K, and PETA. The experimental results indicate that the proposed MCFL with the ResNet-50 backbone is able to outperform other state-of-the-art approaches in comparison.

Deep Convolutional Embedding for Digitized Painting Clustering

Giovanna Castellano, Gennaro Vessio
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; A Deep Convolutional Embedding Model for Clustering Artworks

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Clustering artworks is difficult because of several reasons. On one hand, recognizing meaningful patterns in accordance with domain knowledge and visual perception is extremely hard. On the other hand, the application of traditional clustering and feature reduction techniques to the highly dimensional pixel space can be ineffective. To address these issues, we propose to use a deep convolutional embedding model for digitized painting clustering, in which the task of mapping the input raw data to an abstract, latent space is jointly optimized with the task of finding a set of cluster centroids in this latent feature space. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The model is also able to outperform other state-of-the-art deep clustering approaches to the same problem. The proposed method may be beneficial to several art-related tasks, particularly visual link retrieval and historical knowledge discovery in painting datasets.

Point In: Counting Trees with Weakly Supervised Segmentation Network

Pinmo Tong, Shuhui Bu, Pengcheng Han
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Weakly Tree counting using Deep Segmentation Network with Localization and Mask Prediction

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For tree counting tasks, since traditional image processing methods require expensive feature engineering and are not end-to-end frameworks, this will cause additional noise and cannot be optimized overall, so this method has not been widely used in recent trends of tree counting application. Recently, many deep learning based approaches are designed for this task because of the powerful feature extracting ability. The representative way is bounding box based supervised method, but time-consuming annotations are indispensable for them. Moreover, these methods are difficult to overcome the occlusion or overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a weakly tree counting network (WTCNet) based on deep segmentation network with only point supervision. It can simultaneously complete tree counting with localization and output mask of each tree at the same time. We first adopt a novel feature extractor network (FENet) to get features of input images, and then an effective strategy is introduced to deal with different mask predictions. In the end, we propose a basic localization guidance accompany with rectification guidance to train the network. We create two different datasets and select an existing challenging plant dataset to evaluate our method on three different tasks. Experimental results show the good performance improvement of our method compared with other existing methods. Further study shows that our method has great potential to reduce human labor and provide effective ground-truth masks and the results show the superiority of our method over the advanced methods.

Enhancing Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images with Inhibitory Neurons

Ihsan Ullah, Sean Reilly, Michael Madden
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Lateral Inhibition in Deep Neural Networks for Object Recognition and Semantic Segmentation

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In a Convolutional Neural Network, each neuron in the output feature map takes input from the neurons in its receptive field. This receptive field concept plays a vital role in today's deep neural networks. However, inspired by neuro-biological research, it has been proposed to add inhibitory neurons outside the receptive field, which may enhance the performance of neural network models. In this paper, we begin with deep network architectures such as VGG and ResNet, and propose an approach to add lateral inhibition in each output neuron to reduce its impact on its neighbours, both in fine-tuning pre-trained models and training from scratch. Our experiments show that notable improvements upon prior baseline deep models can be achieved. A key feature of our approach is that it is easy to add to baseline models; it can be adopted in any model containing convolution layers, and we demonstrate its value in applications including object recognition and semantic segmentation of aerial images, where we show state-of-the-art result on the Aeroscape dataset. On semantic segmentation tasks, our enhancement shows 17.43% higher mIoU than a single baseline model on a single source (the Aeroscape dataset), 13.43% higher performance than an ensemble model on the same single source, and 7.03% higher than an ensemble model on multiple sources (segmentation datasets). Our experiments illustrate the potential impact of using inhibitory neurons in deep learning models, and they also show better results than the baseline models that have standard convolutional layer.

Pose-Robust Face Recognition by Deep Meta Capsule Network-Based Equivariant Embedding

Fangyu Wu, Jeremy Simon Smith, Wenjin Lu, Bailing Zhang
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Meta Capsule Network-based Equivariant Embedding Model for Pose-Robust Face Recognition

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Despite the exceptional success in face recognition related technologies, handling large pose variations still remains a key challenge. Current techniques for pose-robust face recognition either, directly extract pose-invariant features, or first synthesize a face that matches the target pose before feature extraction. It is more desirable to learn face representations equivariant to pose variations. To this end, this paper proposes a deep meta Capsule network-based Equivariant Embedding Model (DM-CEEM) with three distinct novelties. First, the proposed RB-CapsNet allows DM-CEEM to learn an equivariant embedding for pose variations and achieve the desired transformation for input face images. Second, we introduce a new version of a Capsule network called RB-CapsNet to extend CapsNet to perform a profile-to-frontal face transformation in deep feature space. Third, we train the DM-CEEM in a meta way by treating a single overall classification target as multiple sub-tasks that satisfy certain unknown probabilities. In each sub-task, we sample the support and query sets randomly. The experimental results on both controlled and in-the-wild databases demonstrate the superiority of DM-CEEM over state-of-the-art.

Multi-Task Learning for Calorie Prediction on a Novel Large-Scale Recipe Dataset Enriched with Nutritional Information

Robin Ruede, Verena Heusser, Lukas Frank, Monica Haurilet, Alina Roitberg, Rainer Stiefelhagen
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.6

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Auto-TLDR; Pic2kcal: Learning Food Recipes from Images for Calorie Estimation

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A rapidly growing amount of content posted online, such as food recipes, opens doors to new exciting applications at the intersection of vision and language. In this work, we aim to estimate the calorie amount of a meal directly from an image by learning from recipes people have published on the Internet, thus skipping time-consuming manual data annotation. Since there are few large-scale publicly available datasets captured in unconstrained environments, we propose the pic2kcal benchmark comprising 308,000 images from over 70,000 recipes including photographs, ingredients and instructions. To obtain nutritional information of the ingredients and automatically determine the ground-truth calorie value, we match the items in the recipes with structured information from a food item database. We evaluate various neural networks for regression of the calorie quantity and extend them with the multi-task paradigm. Our learning procedure combines the calorie estimation with prediction of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat amounts as well as a multi-label ingredient classification. Our experiments demonstrate clear benefits of multi-task learning for calorie estimation, surpassing the single-task calorie regression by 9.9%. To encourage further research on this task, we make the code for generating the dataset and the models publicly available.

Bridging the Gap between Natural and Medical Images through Deep Colorization

Lia Morra, Luca Piano, Fabrizio Lamberti, Tatiana Tommasi
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T5.4

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Auto-TLDR; Transfer Learning for Diagnosis on X-ray Images Using Color Adaptation

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Deep learning has thrived by training on large-scale datasets. However, in many applications, as for medical image diagnosis, getting massive amount of data is still prohibitive due to privacy, lack of acquisition homogeneity and annotation cost. In this scenario transfer learning from natural image collections is a standard practice that attempts to tackle shape, texture and color discrepancy all at once through pretrained model fine-tuning. In this work we propose to disentangle those challenges and design a dedicated network module that focuses on color adaptation. We combine learning from scratch of the color module with transfer learning of different classification backbones obtaining an end-to-end, easy-to-train architecture for diagnostic image recognition on X-ray images. Extensive experiments show how our approach is particularly efficient in case of data scarcity and provides a new path for further transferring the learned color information across multiple medical datasets.

Generalization Comparison of Deep Neural Networks Via Output Sensitivity

Mahsa Forouzesh, Farnood Salehi, Patrick Thiran
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Generalization of Deep Neural Networks using Sensitivity

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Although recent works have brought some insights into the performance improvement of techniques used in state-of-the-art deep-learning models, more work is needed to understand their generalization properties. We shed light on this matter by linking the loss function to the output's sensitivity to its input. We find a rather strong empirical relation between the output sensitivity and the variance in the bias-variance decomposition of the loss function, which hints on using sensitivity as a metric for comparing the generalization performance of networks, without requiring labeled data. We find that sensitivity is decreased by applying popular methods which improve the generalization performance of the model, such as (1) using a deep network rather than a wide one, (2) adding convolutional layers to baseline classifiers instead of adding fully-connected layers, (3) using batch normalization, dropout and max-pooling, and (4) applying parameter initialization techniques.

Semi-Supervised Generative Adversarial Networks with a Pair of Complementary Generators for Retinopathy Screening

Yingpeng Xie, Qiwei Wan, Hai Xie, En-Leng Tan, Yanwu Xu, Baiying Lei
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Networks for Retinopathy Diagnosis via Fundus Images

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Several typical types of retinopathy are major causes of blindness. However, early detection of retinopathy is quite not easy since few symptoms are observable in the early stage, attributing to the development of non-mydriatic retinal camera. These camera produces high-resolution retinal fundus images provide the possibility of Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) via deep learning to assist diagnosing retinopathy. Deep learning algorithms usually rely on a great number of labelled images which are expensive and time-consuming to obtain in the medical imaging area. Moreover, the random distribution of various lesions which often vary greatly in size also brings significant challenges to learn discriminative information from high-resolution fundus image. In this paper, we present generative adversarial networks simultaneously equipped with "good" generator and "bad" generator (GBGANs) to make up for the incomplete data distribution provided by limited fundus images. To improve the generative feasibility of generator, we introduce into pre-trained feature extractor to acquire condensed feature for each fundus image in advance. Experimental results on integrated three public iChallenge datasets show that the proposed GBGANs could fully utilize the available fundus images to identify retinopathy with little label cost.

Investigating and Exploiting Image Resolution for Transfer Learning-Based Skin Lesion Classification

Amirreza Mahbod, Gerald Schaefer, Chunliang Wang, Rupert Ecker, Georg Dorffner, Isabella Ellinger
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.11

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Auto-TLDR; Fine-tuned Neural Networks for Skin Lesion Classification Using Dermoscopic Images

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Skin cancer is among the most common cancer types. Dermoscopic image analysis improves the diagnostic accuracy for detection of malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions when compared to unaided visual inspection. Hence, computer-based methods to support medical experts in the diagnostic procedure are of great interest. Fine-tuning pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has been shown to work well for skin lesion classification. Pre-trained CNNs are usually trained with natural images of a fixed image size which is typically significantly smaller than captured skin lesion images and consequently dermoscopic images are downsampled for fine-tuning. However, useful medical information may be lost during this transformation. In this paper, we explore the effect of input image size on skin lesion classification performance of fine-tuned CNNs. For this, we resize dermoscopic images to different resolutions, ranging from 64x64 to 768x768 pixels and investigate the resulting classification performance of three well-established CNNs, namely DenseNet-121, ResNet-18, and ResNet-50. Our results show that using very small images (of size 64x64 pixels) degrades the classification performance, while images of size 128x128 pixels and above support good performance with larger image sizes leading to slightly improved classification. We further propose a novel fusion approach based on a three-level ensemble strategy that exploits multiple fine-tuned networks trained with dermoscopic images at various sizes. When applied on the ISIC 2017 skin lesion classification challenge, our fusion approach yields an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 89.2% and 96.6% for melanoma classification and seborrheic keratosis classification, respectively, outperforming state-of-the-art algorithms.