Feature Pyramid Hierarchies for Multi-Scale Temporal Action Detection

Jiayu He, Guohui Li, Jun Lei
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Temporal Action Detection using Pyramid Hierarchies and Multi-scale Feature Maps

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Temporal action detection is a challenging but promising task in video content analysis. It is in great demand in the field of public safety. The main difficulty of the task is precisely localizing activities in the video especially those short duration activities. And most of the existing methods can not achieve a satisfactory detection result. Our method addresses a key point to improve detection accuracy, which is to use multi-scale feature maps for regression and classification. In this paper, we introduce a novel network based on classification following proposal framework. In our network, a 3D feature pyramid hierarchies is built to enhance the ability of detecting short duration activities. The input RGB/Flow frames are first encoded by a 3D feature pyramid hierarchies, and this subnet produces multi-level feature maps. Then temporal proposal subnet uses these features to pick out proposals which might contain activity segments. Finally a pyramid region of interest (RoI) pooling pipeline and two fully connected layers reuse muti-level feature maps to refine the temporal boundaries of proposals and classify them. We use late feature fusion scheme to combine RGB and Flow information. The network is trained end-to-end and we evaluate it in THUMOS'14 dataset. Our network achieves a good result among typical methods. A further ablation test demonstrate that pyramid hierarchies is effective to improve detecting short duration activity segments.

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You Ought to Look Around: Precise, Large Span Action Detection

Ge Pan, Zhang Han, Fan Yu, Yonghong Song, Yuanlin Zhang, Han Yuan
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session OS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; YOLA: Local Feature Extraction for Action Localization with Variable receptive field

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For the action localization task, pre-defined action anchors are the cornerstone of mainstream techniques. State-of-the-art models mostly rely on a dense segmenting scheme, where anchors are sampled uniformly over the temporal domain with a predefined set of scales. However, it is not sufficient because action duration varies greatly. Therefore, it is necessary for the anchors or proposals to have a variable receptive field. In this paper, we propose a method called YOLA (You Ought to Look Around) which includes three parts: 1) a robust backbone SPN-I3D for extracting spatio-temporal features. In this part, we employ a stronger backbone I3D with SPN (Segment Pyramid Network) instead of C3D to obtain multi-scale features; 2) a simple but useful feature fusion module named LFE (Local Feature Extraction). Compared with the fully connected layer and global average pooling, our LFE model is more advantageous for network to fit and fuse features. 3) a new feature segment aligning method called TPGC (Two Pathway Graph Convolution), which allows one proposal to leverage semantic features of adjacent proposals to update its content and make sure the proposals have a variable receptive field. YOLA add only a small overhead to the baseline network, and is easy to train in an end-to-end manner, running at a speed of 1097 fps. YOLA achieves a mAP of 58.3%, outperforming all existing models including both RGB-based and two stream on THUMOS'14, and achieves competitive results on ActivityNet 1.3.

Gabriella: An Online System for Real-Time Activity Detection in Untrimmed Security Videos

Mamshad Nayeem Rizve, Ugur Demir, Praveen Praveen Tirupattur, Aayush Jung Rana, Kevin Duarte, Ishan Rajendrakumar Dave, Yogesh Rawat, Mubarak Shah
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Gabriella: A Real-Time Online System for Activity Detection in Surveillance Videos

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Activity detection in surveillance videos is a difficult problem due to multiple factors such as large field of view, presence of multiple activities, varying scales and viewpoints, and its untrimmed nature. The existing research in activity detection is mainly focused on datasets, such as UCF-101, JHMDB, THUMOS, and AVA, which partially address these issues. The requirement of processing the surveillance videos in real-time makes this even more challenging. In this work we propose Gabriella, a real-time online system to perform activity detection on untrimmed surveillance videos. The proposed method consists of three stages: tubelet extraction, activity classification, and online tubelet merging. For tubelet extraction, we propose a localization network which takes a video clip as input and spatio-temporally detects potential foreground regions at multiple scales to generate action tubelets. We propose a novel Patch-Dice loss to handle large variations in actor size. Our online processing of videos at a clip level drastically reduces the computation time in detecting activities. The detected tubelets are assigned activity class scores by the classification network and merged together using our proposed Tubelet-Merge Action-Split (TMAS) algorithm to form the final action detections. The TMAS algorithm efficiently connects the tubelets in an online fashion to generate action detections which are robust against varying length activities. We perform our experiments on the VIRAT and MEVA (Multiview Extended Video with Activities) datasets and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of speed ($\sim$100 fps) and performance with state-of-the-art results. The code and models will be made publicly available.

ActionSpotter: Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework for Temporal Action Spotting in Videos

Guillaume Vaudaux-Ruth, Adrien Chan-Hon-Tong, Catherine Achard
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; ActionSpotter: A Reinforcement Learning Algorithm for Action Spotting in Video

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Action spotting has recently been proposed as an alternative to action detection and key frame extraction. However, the current state-of-the-art method of action spotting requires an expensive ground truth composed of the search sequences employed by human annotators spotting actions - a critical limitation. In this article, we propose to use a reinforcement learning algorithm to perform efficient action spotting using only the temporal segments from the action detection annotations, thus opening an interesting solution for video understanding. Experiments performed on THUMOS14 and ActivityNet datasets show that the proposed method, named ActionSpotter, leads to good results and outperforms state-of-the-art detection outputs redrawn for this application. In particular, the spotting mean Average Precision on THUMOS14 is significantly improved from 59.7% to 65.6% while skipping 23% of video.

Precise Temporal Action Localization with Quantified Temporal Structure of Actions

Chongkai Lu, Ruimin Li, Hong Fu, Bin Fu, Yihao Wang, Wai Lun Lo, Zheru Chi
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; Action progression networks for temporal action detection

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Existing temporal action detection algorithms cannot distinguish complete and incomplete actions while this property is essential in many applications. To tackle this challenge, we proposed the action progression networks (APN), a novel model that predicts action progression of video frames with continuous numbers. Using the progression sequence of test video, on the top of the APN, a complete action searching algorithm (CAS) was designed to detect complete actions only. With the usage of frame-level fine-grained temporal structure modeling and detecting actions according to their whole temporal context, our framework can locate actions precisely and is good at avoiding incomplete action detection. We evaluated our framework on a new dataset (DFMAD-70) collected by ourselves which contains both complete and incomplete actions. Our framework got good temporal localization results with 95.77% average precision when the IoU threshold is 0.5. On the benchmark THUMOS14, an incomplete-ignostic dataset, our framework still obtain competitive performance. The code is available online at https://github.com/MakeCent/Action-Progression-Network

RMS-Net: Regression and Masking for Soccer Event Spotting

Matteo Tomei, Lorenzo Baraldi, Simone Calderara, Simone Bronzin, Rita Cucchiara
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; An Action Spotting Network for Soccer Videos

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The recently proposed action spotting task consists in finding the exact timestamp in which an event occurs. This task fits particularly well for soccer videos, where events correspond to salient actions strictly defined by soccer rules (a goal occurs when the ball crosses the goal line). In this paper, we devise a lightweight and modular network for action spotting, which can simultaneously predict the event label and its temporal offset using the same underlying features. We enrich our model with two training strategies: the first one for data balancing and uniform sampling, the second for masking ambiguous frames and keeping the most discriminative visual cues. When tested on the SoccerNet dataset and using standard features, our full proposal exceeds the current state of the art by 3 Average-mAP points. Additionally, it reaches a gain of more than 10 Average-mAP points on the test set when fine-tuned in combination with a strong 2D backbone.

RWF-2000: An Open Large Scale Video Database for Violence Detection

Ming Cheng, Kunjing Cai, Ming Li
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.4

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Auto-TLDR; Flow Gated Network for Violence Detection in Surveillance Cameras

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In recent years, surveillance cameras are widely deployed in public places, and the general crime rate has been reduced significantly due to these ubiquitous devices. Usually, these cameras provide cues and evidence after crimes were conducted, while they are rarely used to prevent or stop criminal activities in time. It is both time and labor consuming to manually monitor a large amount of video data from surveillance cameras. Therefore, automatically recognizing violent behaviors from video signals becomes essential. In this paper, we summarize several existing video datasets for violence detection and propose a new video dataset with 2,000 videos all captured by surveillance cameras in real-world scenes. Also, we present a new method that utilizes both the merits of 3D-CNNs and optical flow, namely Flow Gated Network. The proposed approach obtains an accuracy of 87.25% on the test set of our proposed RWF-2000 database. The proposed database and source codes of this paper are currently open to access.

Scene Text Detection with Selected Anchors

Anna Zhu, Hang Du, Shengwu Xiong
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T4.3

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Auto-TLDR; AS-RPN: Anchor Selection-based Region Proposal Network for Scene Text Detection

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Object proposal technique with dense anchoring scheme for scene text detection were applied frequently to achieve high recall. It results in the significant improvement in accuracy but waste of computational searching, regression and classification. In this paper, we propose an anchor selection-based region proposal network (AS-RPN) using effective selected anchors instead of dense anchors to extract text proposals. The center, scales, aspect ratios and orientations of anchors are learnable instead of fixing, which leads to high recall and greatly reduced numbers of anchors. By replacing the anchor-based RPN in Faster RCNN, the AS-RPN-based Faster RCNN can achieve comparable performance with previous state-of-the-art text detecting approaches on standard benchmarks, including COCO-Text, ICDAR2013, ICDAR2015 and MSRA-TD500 when using single-scale and single model (ResNet50) testing only.

TinyVIRAT: Low-Resolution Video Action Recognition

Ugur Demir, Yogesh Rawat, Mubarak Shah
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; TinyVIRAT: A Progressive Generative Approach for Action Recognition in Videos

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The existing research in action recognition is mostly focused on high-quality videos where the action is distinctly visible. In real-world surveillance environments, the actions in videos are captured at a wide range of resolutions. Most activities occur at a distance with a small resolution and recognizing such activities is a challenging problem. In this work, we focus on recognizing tiny actions in videos. We introduce a benchmark dataset, TinyVIRAT, which contains natural low-resolution activities. The actions in TinyVIRAT videos have multiple labels and they are extracted from surveillance videos which makes them realistic and more challenging. We propose a novel method for recognizing tiny actions in videos which utilizes a progressive generative approach to improve the quality of low-resolution actions. The proposed method also consists of a weakly trained attention mechanism which helps in focusing on the activity regions in the video. We perform extensive experiments to benchmark the proposed TinyVIRAT dataset and observe that the proposed method significantly improves the action recognition performance over baselines. We also evaluate the proposed approach on synthetically resized action recognition datasets and achieve state-of-the-art results when compared with existing methods. The dataset and code will be publicly available.

Bidirectional Matrix Feature Pyramid Network for Object Detection

Wei Xu, Yi Gan, Jianbo Su
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; BMFPN: Bidirectional Matrix Feature Pyramid Network for Object Detection

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Feature pyramids are widely used to improve scale invariance for object detection. Most methods just map the objects to feature maps with relevant square receptive fields, but rarely pay attention to the aspect ratio variation, which is also an important property of object instances. It will lead to a poor match between rectangular objects and assigned features with square receptive fields, thus preventing from accurate recognition and location. Besides, the information propagation among feature layers is sparse, namely, each feature in the pyramid may mainly or only contain single-level information, which is not representative enough for classification and localization sub-tasks. In this paper, Bidirectional Matrix Feature Pyramid Network (BMFPN) is proposed to address these issues. It consists of three modules: Diagonal Layer Generation Module (DLGM), Top-down Module (TDM) and Bottom-up Module (BUM). First, multi-level features extracted by backbone are fed into DLGM to produce the base features. Then these base features are utilized to construct the final feature pyramid through TDM and BUM in series. The receptive fields of the designed feature layers in BMFPN have various scales and aspect ratios. Objects can be correctly assigned to appropriate and representative feature maps with relevant receptive fields depending on its scale and aspect ratio properties. Moreover, TDM and BUM form bidirectional and reticular information flow, which effectively fuses multi level information in top-down and bottom-up manner respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed architecture, an end-toend anchor-free detector is designed and trained by integrating BMFPN into FCOS. And the center ness branch in FCOS is modified with our Gaussian center-ness branch (GCB), which brings another slight improvement. Without bells and whistles, our method gains +3.3%, +2.4% and +2.6% AP on MS COCO dataset from baselines with ResNet-50, ResNet-101 and ResNeXt-101 backbones, respectively.

MFI: Multi-Range Feature Interchange for Video Action Recognition

Sikai Bai, Qi Wang, Xuelong Li
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-range Feature Interchange Network for Action Recognition in Videos

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Short-range motion features and long-range dependencies are two complementary and vital cues for action recognition in videos, but it remains unclear how to efficiently and effectively extract these two features. In this paper, we propose a novel network to capture these two features in a unified 2D framework. Specifically, we first construct a Short-range Temporal Interchange (STI) block, which contains a Channels-wise Temporal Interchange (CTI) module for encoding short-range motion features. Then a Graph-based Regional Interchange (GRI) module is built to present long-range dependencies using graph convolution. Finally, we replace original bottleneck blocks in the ResNet with STI blocks and insert several GRI modules between STI blocks, to form a Multi-range Feature Interchange (MFI) Network. Practically, extensive experiments are conducted on three action recognition datasets (i.e., Something-Something V1, HMDB51, and UCF101), which demonstrate that the proposed MFI network achieves impressive results with very limited computing cost.

SFPN: Semantic Feature Pyramid Network for Object Detection

Yi Gan, Wei Xu, Jianbo Su
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; SFPN: Semantic Feature Pyramid Network to Address Information Dilution Issue in FPN

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Feature Pyramid Network(FPN) employs a top-down path to enhance low level feature by utilizing high level feature.However, further improvement of detector is greatly hindered by the inner defect of FPN. The dilution issue in FPN is analyzed in this paper, and a new architecture named Semantic Feature Pyramid Network(SFPN) is introduced to address the information imbalance problem caused by information dilution. The proposed method consists of two simple and effective components: Semantic Pyramid Module(SPM) and Semantic Feature Fusion Module(SFFM). To compensate for the weaknesses of FPN, the semantic segmentation result is utilized as an extra information source in our architecture.By constructing a semantic pyramid based on the segmentation result and fusing it with FPN, feature maps at each level can obtain the necessary information without suffering from the dilution issue. The proposed architecture could be applied on many detectors, and non-negligible improvement could be achieved. Although this method is designed for object detection, other tasks such as instance segmentation can also largely benefit from it. The proposed method brings Faster R-CNN and Mask R-CNN with ResNet-50 as backbone both 1.8 AP improvements respectively. Furthermore, SFPN improves Cascade R-CNN with backbone ResNet-101 from 42.4 AP to 43.5 AP.

Multi-Scale 2D Representation Learning for Weakly-Supervised Moment Retrieval

Ding Li, Rui Wu, Zhizhong Zhang, Yongqiang Tang, Wensheng Zhang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-scale 2D Representation Learning for Weakly Supervised Video Moment Retrieval

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Video moment retrieval aims to search the moment most relevant to a given language query. However, most existing methods in this community often require temporal boundary annotations which are expensive and time-consuming to label. Hence weakly supervised methods have been put forward recently by only using coarse video-level label. Despite effectiveness, these methods usually process moment candidates independently, while ignoring a critical issue that the natural temporal dependencies between candidates in different temporal scales. To cope with this issue, we propose a Multi-scale 2D Representation Learning method for weakly supervised video moment retrieval. Specifically, we first construct a two-dimensional map for each temporal scale to capture the temporal dependencies between candidates. Two dimensions in this map indicate the start and end time points of these candidates. Then, we select top-K candidates from each scale-varied map with a learnable convolutional neural network. With a newly designed Moments Evaluation Module, we obtain the alignment scores of the selected candidates. At last, the similarity between captions and language query is served as supervision for further training the candidates' selector. Experiments on two benchmark datasets Charades-STA and ActivityNet Captions demonstrate that our approach achieves superior performance to state-of-the-art results.

Learning a Dynamic High-Resolution Network for Multi-Scale Pedestrian Detection

Mengyuan Ding, Shanshan Zhang, Jian Yang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Learningable Dynamic HRNet for Pedestrian Detection

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Pedestrian detection is a canonical instance of object detection in computer vision. In practice, scale variation is one of the key challenges, resulting in unbalanced performance across different scales. Recently, the High-Resolution Network (HRNet) has become popular because high-resolution feature representations are more friendly to small objects. However, when we apply HRNet for pedestrian detection, we observe that it improves for small pedestrians on one hand, but hurts the performance for larger ones on the other hand. To overcome this problem, we propose a learnable Dynamic HRNet (DHRNet) aiming to generate different network paths adaptive to different scales. Specifically, we construct a parallel multi-branch architecture and add a soft conditional gate module allowing for dynamic feature fusion. Both branches share all the same parameters except the soft gate module. Experimental results on CityPersons and Caltech benchmarks indicate that our proposed dynamic HRNet is more capable of dealing with pedestrians of various scales, and thus improves the performance across different scales consistently.

What and How? Jointly Forecasting Human Action and Pose

Yanjun Zhu, Yanxia Zhang, Qiong Liu, Andreas Girgensohn
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T2.1

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Auto-TLDR; Forecasting Human Actions and Motion Trajectories with Joint Action Classification and Pose Regression

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Forecasting human actions and motion trajectories addresses the problem of predicting what a person is going to do next and how they will perform it. This is crucial in a wide range of applications such as assisted living and future co-robotic settings. We propose to simultaneously learn actions and action-related human motion dynamics, while existing works perform them independently. In this paper, we present a method to jointly forecast categories of human action and the pose of skeletal joints in the hope that the two tasks can help each other. As a result, our system can predict not only the future actions but also the motion trajectories that will result. To achieve this, we define a task of joint action classification and pose regression. We employ a sequence to sequence encoder-decoder model combined with multi-task learning to forecast future actions and poses progressively before the action happens. Experimental results on two public datasets, IkeaDB and OAD, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Learnable Higher-Order Representation for Action Recognition

Jie Shao, Xiangyang Xue
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Learningable Higher-Order Operations for Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Video Recognition

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Capturing spatiotemporal dynamics is an essential topic in video recognition. In this paper, we present learnable higher-order operations as a generic family of building blocks for capturing spatiotemporal dynamics from RGB input video space. Similar to higher-order functions, the weights of higher-order operations are themselves derived from the data with learnable parameters. Classical architectures such as residual learning and network-in-network are first-order operations where weights are directly learned from the data. Higher-order operations make it easier to capture context-sensitive patterns, such as motion. Self-attention models are also higher-order operations, but the attention weights are mostly computed from an affine operation or dot product. The learnable higher-order operations can be more generic and flexible. Experimentally, we show that on the task of video recognition, our higher-order models can achieve results on par with or better than the existing state-of-the-art methods on Something-Something (V1 and V2), Kinetics and Charades datasets.

Self-Supervised Joint Encoding of Motion and Appearance for First Person Action Recognition

Mirco Planamente, Andrea Bottino, Barbara Caputo
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T2.3

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Auto-TLDR; A Single Stream Architecture for Egocentric Action Recognition from the First-Person Point of View

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Wearable cameras are becoming more and more popular in several applications, increasing the interest of the research community in developing approaches for recognizing actions from the first-person point of view. An open challenge in egocentric action recognition is that videos lack detailed information about the main actor's pose and thus tend to record only parts of the movement when focusing on manipulation tasks. Thus, the amount of information about the action itself is limited, making crucial the understanding of the manipulated objects and their context. Many previous works addressed this issue with two-stream architectures, where one stream is dedicated to modeling the appearance of objects involved in the action, and another to extracting motion features from optical flow. In this paper, we argue that learning features jointly from these two information channels is beneficial to capture the spatio-temporal correlations between the two better. To this end, we propose a single stream architecture able to do so, thanks to the addition of a self-supervised block that uses a pretext motion prediction task to intertwine motion and appearance knowledge. Experiments on several publicly available databases show the power of our approach.

Construction Worker Hardhat-Wearing Detection Based on an Improved BiFPN

Chenyang Zhang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jingyi Song, Yaoyue Zheng, Bo Xu
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; A One-Stage Object Detection Method for Hardhat-Wearing in Construction Site

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Work in the construction site is considered to be one of the occupations with the highest safety risk factor. Therefore, safety plays an important role in construction site. One of the most fundamental safety rules in construction site is to wear a hardhat. To strengthen the safety of the construction site, most of the current methods use multi-stage method for hardhat-wearing detection. These methods have limitations in terms of adaptability and generalizability. In this paper, we propose a one-stage object detection method based on convolutional neural network. We present a multi-scale strategy that selects the high-resolution feature maps of DarkNet-53 to effectively identify small-scale hardhats. In addition, we propose an improved weighted bi-directional feature pyramid network (BiFPN), which could fuse more semantic features from more scales. The proposed method can not only detect hardhat-wearing, but also identify the color of the hardhat. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a mAP of 87.04%, which outperforms several state-of-the-art methods on a public dataset.

Triplet-Path Dilated Network for Detection and Segmentation of General Pathological Images

Jiaqi Luo, Zhicheng Zhao, Fei Su, Limei Guo
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T5.5

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Auto-TLDR; Triplet-path Network for One-Stage Object Detection and Segmentation in Pathological Images

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Deep learning has been widely applied in the field of medical image processing. However, compared with flourishing visual tasks in natural images, the progress achieved in pathological images is not remarkable, and detection and segmentation, which are among basic tasks of computer vision, are regarded as two independent tasks. In this paper, we make full use of existing datasets and construct a triplet-path network using dilated convolutions to cooperatively accomplish one-stage object detection and nuclei segmentation for general pathological images. First, in order to meet the requirement of detection and segmentation, a novel structure called triplet feature generation (TFG) is designed to extract high-resolution and multiscale features, where features from different layers can be properly integrated. Second, considering that pathological datasets are usually small, a location-aware and partially truncated loss function is proposed to improve the classification accuracy of datasets with few images and widely varying targets. We compare the performance of both object detection and instance segmentation with state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed network on two datasets collected from multiple organs.

Late Fusion of Bayesian and Convolutional Models for Action Recognition

Camille Maurice, Francisco Madrigal, Frederic Lerasle
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Fusion of Deep Neural Network and Bayesian-based Approach for Temporal Action Recognition

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The activities we do in our daily-life are generally carried out as a succession of atomic actions, following a logical order. During a video sequence, actions usually follow a logical order. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach resulting from the fusion of a deep learning neural network with a Bayesian-based approach. The latter models human-object interactions and transition between actions. The key idea is to combine both approaches in the final prediction. We validate our strategy in two public datasets: CAD-120 and Watch-n-Patch. We show that our fusion approach yields performance gains in accuracy of respectively +4\% and +6\% over a baseline approach. Temporal action recognition performances are clearly improved by the fusion, especially when classes are imbalanced.

Object Detection Model Based on Scene-Level Region Proposal Self-Attention

Yu Quan, Zhixin Li, Canlong Zhang, Huifang Ma
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Exploiting Semantic Informations for Object Detection

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The improvement of object detection performance is mostly focused on the extraction of local information near the region of interest in the image, which results in detection performance in this area being unable to achieve the desired effect. First, a depth-wise separable convolution network(D_SCNet-127 R-CNN) is built on the backbone network. Considering the importance of scene and semantic informations for visual recognition, the feature map is sent into the branch of the semantic segmentation module, region proposal network module, and the region proposal self-attention module to build the network of scene-level and region proposal self-attention module. Second, a deep reinforcement learning was utilized to achieve accurate positioning of border regression, and the calculation speed of the whole model was improved through implementing a light-weight head network. This model can effectively solve the limitation of feature extraction in traditional object detection and obtain more comprehensive detailed features. The experimental verification on MSCOCO17, VOC12, and Cityscapes datasets shows that the proposed method has good validity and scalability.

Feature-Supervised Action Modality Transfer

Fida Mohammad Thoker, Cees Snoek
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Cross-Modal Action Recognition and Detection in Non-RGB Video Modalities by Learning from Large-Scale Labeled RGB Data

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This paper strives for action recognition and detection in video modalities like RGB, depth maps or 3D-skeleton sequences when only limited modality-specific labeled examples are available. For the RGB, and derived optical-flow, modality many large-scale labeled datasets have been made available. They have become the de facto pre-training choice when recognizing or detecting new actions from RGB datasets that have limited amounts of labeled examples available. Unfortunately, large-scale labeled action datasets for other modalities are unavailable for pre-training. In this paper, our goal is to recognize actions from limited examples in non-RGB video modalities, by learning from large-scale labeled RGB data. To this end, we propose a two-step training process: (i) we extract action representation knowledge from an RGB-trained teacher network and adapt it to a non-RGB student network. (ii) we then fine-tune the transfer model with available labeled examples of the target modality. For the knowledge transfer we introduce feature-supervision strategies, which rely on unlabeled pairs of two modalities (the RGB and the target modality) to transfer feature level representations from the teacher to the the student network. Ablations and generalizations with two RGB source datasets and two non-RGB target datasets demonstrate that an optical-flow teacher provides better action transfer features than RGB for both depth maps and 3D-skeletons, even when evaluated on a different target domain, or for a different task. Compared to alternative cross-modal action transfer methods we show a good improvement in performance especially when labeled non-RGB examples to learn from are scarce.

CenterRepp: Predict Central Representative Point Set's Distribution for Detection

Yulin He, Limeng Zhang, Wei Chen, Xin Luo, Chen Li, Xiaogang Jia
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; CRPDet: CenterRepp Detector for Object Detection

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Object detection has long been an important issue in the discipline of scene understanding. Existing researches mainly focus on the object itself, ignoring its surrounding environment. In fact, the surrounding environment provides abundant information to help detectors classify and locate objects. This paper proposes CRPDet, viz. CenterRepp Detector, a framework for object detection. The main function of CRPDet is accomplished by the CenterRepp module, which takes into account the surrounding environment by predicting the distribution of the central representative points. CenterRepp converts labeled object frames into the mean and standard variance of the sampling points’ distribution. This helps increase the receptive field of objects, breaking the limitation of object frames. CenterRepp defines a position-fixed center point with significant weights, avoiding to sample all points in the surroundings. Experiments on the COCO test-dev detection benchmark demonstrates that our proposed CRPDet has comparable performance with state-of-the-art detectors, achieving 39.4 mAP with 51 FPS tested under single size input.

Cascade Saliency Attention Network for Object Detection in Remote Sensing Images

Dayang Yu, Rong Zhang, Shan Qin
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T3.8

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Auto-TLDR; Cascade Saliency Attention Network for Object Detection in Remote Sensing Images

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Object detection in remote sensing images is a challenging task due to objects in the bird-view perspective appearing with arbitrary orientations. Though considerable progress has been made, there still exist challenges with the interference from complex backgrounds, dense arrangement, and large-scale variations. In this paper, we propose an oriented detector named Cascade Saliency Attention Network (CSAN), designed for comprehensively suppressing interference in remote sensing images. Specifically, we first combine context and pixel attention on feature maps to enhance saliency of objects for suppressing interference from backgrounds. Then, in cascade network, we apply instance segmentation on ROI to increase saliency of the central object, thus preventing object features from mutual interference in dense arrangement. Additionally, to alleviate large-scale variations, we devise a multi-scale merge module during FPN merging process to learn richer scale representations. Experimental results on DOTA and HRSC2016 datasets outperform other state-of-the-art object detection methods and verify the effectiveness of our method.

PRF-Ped: Multi-Scale Pedestrian Detector with Prior-Based Receptive Field

Yuzhi Tan, Hongxun Yao, Haoran Li, Xiusheng Lu, Haozhe Xie
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.7

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Auto-TLDR; Bidirectional Feature Enhancement Module for Multi-Scale Pedestrian Detection

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Multi-scale feature representation is a common strategy to handle the scale variation in pedestrian detection. Existing methods simply utilize the convolutional pyramidal features for multi-scale representation. However, they rarely pay attention to the differences among different feature scales and extract multi-scale features from a single feature map, which may make the detectors sensitive to scale-variance in multi-scale pedestrian detection. In this paper, we introduce a bidirectional feature enhancement module (BFEM) to augment the semantic information of low-level features and the localization information of high-level features. In addition, we propose a prior-based receptive field block (PRFB) for multi-scale pedestrian feature extraction, where the receptive field is closer to the aspect ratio of the pedestrian target. Consequently, it is less affected by the surrounding background when extracting features. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperform the state-of-the-art methods on the CityPersons and Caltech datasets.

Towards Practical Compressed Video Action Recognition: A Temporal Enhanced Multi-Stream Network

Bing Li, Longteng Kong, Dongming Zhang, Xiuguo Bao, Di Huang, Yunhong Wang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.7

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Auto-TLDR; TEMSN: Temporal Enhanced Multi-Stream Network for Compressed Video Action Recognition

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Current compressed video action recognition methods are mainly based on completely received compressed videos. However, in real transmission, the compressed video packets are usually disorderly received and lost due to network jitters or congestion. It is of great significance to recognize actions in early phases with limited packets, e.g. forecasting the potential risks from videos quickly. In this paper, we proposed a Temporal Enhanced Multi-Stream Network (TEMSN) for practical compressed video action recognition. First, we use three compressed modalities as complementary cues and build a multi-stream network to capture the rich information from compressed video packets. Second, we design a temporal enhanced module based on Encoder-Decoder structure applied on each stream to infer the missing packets, and generate more complete action dynamics. Thanks to the rich modalities and temporal enhancement, our approach is able to better modeling the action with limited compressed packets. Experiments on HMDB-51 and UCF-101 dataset validate its effectiveness and efficiency.

Video Object Detection Using Object's Motion Context and Spatio-Temporal Feature Aggregation

Jaekyum Kim, Junho Koh, Byeongwon Lee, Seungji Yang, Jun Won Choi
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Video Object Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Aggregated Features and Gated Attention Network

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The deep learning technique has recently led to significant improvement in object-detection accuracy. Numerous object detection schemes have been designed to process each frame independently. However, in many applications, object detection is performed using video data, which consists of a sequence of two-dimensional (2D) image frames. Thus, the object detection accuracy can be improved by exploiting the temporal context of the video sequence. In this paper, we propose a novel video object detection method that exploits both the motion context of the object and spatio-temporal aggregated features in the video sequence to enhance the object detection performance. First, the motion of the object is captured by the correlation between the spatial feature maps of two adjacent frames. Then, the embedding vector, representing the motion context, is obtained by feeding the N correlation maps to long short term memory (LSTM). In addition to generating the motion context vector, the spatial feature maps for N adjacent frames are aggregated to boost the quality of the feature map. The gated attention network is employed to selectively combine only highly correlated feature maps based on their relevance. While most video object detectors are applied to two-stage detectors, our proposed method is applicable to one-stage detectors, which tend to be preferred for practical applications owing to reduced computational complexity. Our numerical evaluation conducted on the ImageNet VID dataset shows that our network offers significant performance gain over baseline algorithms, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art one-stage video object detection methods.

Revisiting Sequence-To-Sequence Video Object Segmentation with Multi-Task Loss and Skip-Memory

Fatemeh Azimi, Benjamin Bischke, Sebastian Palacio, Federico Raue, Jörn Hees, Andreas Dengel
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.11

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Auto-TLDR; Sequence-to-Sequence Learning for Video Object Segmentation

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Video Object Segmentation (VOS) is an active research area of the visual domain. One of its fundamental sub-tasks is semi-supervised / one-shot learning: given only the segmentation mask for the first frame, the task is to provide pixel-accurate masks for the object over the rest of the sequence. Despite much progress in the last years, we noticed that many of the existing approaches lose objects in longer sequences, especially when the object is small or briefly occluded. In this work, we build upon a sequence-to-sequence approach that employs an encoder-decoder architecture together with a memory module for exploiting the sequential data. We further improve this approach by proposing a model that manipulates multi-scale spatio-temporal information using memory-equipped skip connections. Furthermore, we incorporate an auxiliary task based on distance classification which greatly enhances the quality of edges in segmentation masks. We compare our approach to the state of the art and show considerable improvement in the contour accuracy metric and the overall segmentation accuracy.

Developing Motion Code Embedding for Action Recognition in Videos

Maxat Alibayev, David Andrea Paulius, Yu Sun
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Motion Embedding via Motion Codes for Action Recognition

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We propose a motion embedding strategy via the motion codes that is a vectorized representation of motions based on their salient mechanical attributes. We show that our motion codes can provide robust motion representation. We train a deep neural network model that learns to embed demonstration videos into motion codes. We integrate the extracted features from the motion embedding model into the current state-of-the-art action recognition model. The obtained model achieved higher accuracy than the baseline on a verb classification task from egocentric videos in EPIC-KITCHENS dataset.

Modeling Long-Term Interactions to Enhance Action Recognition

Alejandro Cartas, Petia Radeva, Mariella Dimiccoli
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.11

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Auto-TLDR; A Hierarchical Long Short-Term Memory Network for Action Recognition in Egocentric Videos

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In this paper, we propose a new approach to understand actions in egocentric videos that exploit the semantics of object interactions at both frame and temporal levels. At the frame level, we use a region-based approach that takes as input a primary region roughly corresponding to the user hands and a set of secondary regions potentially corresponding to the interacting objects and calculates the action score through a CNN formulation. This information is then fed to a Hierarchical Long Short-Term Memory Network (HLSTM) that captures temporal dependencies between actions within and across shots. Ablation studies thoroughly validate the proposed approach, showing in particular that both levels of the HLSTM architecture contribute to performance improvement. Furthermore, quantitative comparisons show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of action recognition on standard benchmarks, without relying on motion information.

A Novel Region of Interest Extraction Layer for Instance Segmentation

Leonardo Rossi, Akbar Karimi, Andrea Prati
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Generic RoI Extractor for Two-Stage Neural Network for Instance Segmentation

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Given the wide diffusion of deep neural network architectures for computer vision tasks, several new applications are nowadays more and more feasible. Among them, a particular attention has been recently given to instance segmentation, by exploiting the results achievable by two-stage networks (such as Mask R-CNN or Faster R-CNN), derived from R-CNN. In these complex architectures, a crucial role is played by the Region of Interest (RoI) extraction layer, devoted to extract a coherent subset of features from a single Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) layer attached on top of a backbone. This paper is motivated by the need to overcome to the limitations of existing RoI extractors which select only one (the best) layer from FPN. Our intuition is that all the layers of FPN retain useful information. Therefore, the proposed layer (called Generic RoI Extractor - GRoIE) introduces non-local building blocks and attention mechanisms to boost the performance. A comprehensive ablation study at component level is conducted to find the best set of algorithms and parameters for the GRoIE layer. Moreover, GRoIE can be integrated seamlessly with every two-stage architecture for both object detection and instance segmentation tasks. Therefore, the improvements brought by the use of GRoIE in different state-of-the-art architectures are also evaluated. The proposed layer leads up to gain a 1.1% AP on bounding box detection and 1.7% AP on instance segmentation. The code is publicly available on GitHub repository at https://github.com/IMPLabUniPr/mmdetection-groie

Hierarchical Head Design for Object Detectors

Shivang Agarwal, Frederic Jurie
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; Hierarchical Anchor for SSD Detector

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The notion of anchor plays a major role in modern detection algorithms such as the Faster-RCNN or the SSD detector. Anchors relate the features of the last layers of the detector with bounding boxes containing objects in images. Despite their importance, the literature on object detection has not paid real attention to them. The motivation of this paper comes from the observations that (i) each anchor learns to classify and regress candidate objects independently (ii) insufficient examples are available for each anchor in case of small-scale datasets. This paper addresses these questions by proposing a novel hierarchical head for the SSD detector. The new design has the added advantage of no extra weights, as compared to the original design at inference time, while improving detectors performance for small size training sets. Improved performance on PASCAL-VOC and state-of-the-art performance on FlickrLogos-47 validate the method. We also show when the proposed design does not give additional performance gain over the original design.

Correlation-Based ConvNet for Small Object Detection in Videos

Brais Bosquet, Manuel Mucientes, Victor Brea
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; STDnet-ST: An End-to-End Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Neural Network for Small Object Detection in Video

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The detection of small objects is of particular interest in many real applications. In this paper, we propose STDnet-ST, a novel approach to small object detection in video using spatial information operating alongside temporal video information. STDnet-ST is an end-to-end spatio-temporal convolutional neural network that detects small objects over time and correlates pairs of the top-ranked regions with the highest likelihood of containing small objects. This architecture links the small objects across the time as tubelets, being able to dismiss unprofitable object links in order to provide high-quality tubelets. STDnet-ST achieves state-of-the-art results for small objects on the publicly available USC-GRAD-STDdb and UAVDT video datasets.

CAggNet: Crossing Aggregation Network for Medical Image Segmentation

Xu Cao, Yanghao Lin
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Crossing Aggregation Network for Medical Image Segmentation

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In this paper, we present Crossing Aggregation Network (CAggNet), a novel densely connected semantic segmentation method for medical image analysis. The crossing aggregation network absorbs the idea of deep layer aggregation and makes significant innovations in layer connection and semantic information fusion. In this architecture, the traditional skip-connection structure of general U-Net is replaced by aggregations of multi-level down-sampling and up-sampling layers. This enables the network to fuse information interactively flows at different levels of layers in semantic segmentation. It also introduces weighted aggregation module to aggregate multi-scale output information. We have evaluated and compared our CAggNet with several advanced U-Net based methods in two public medical image datasets, including the 2018 Data Science Bowl nuclei detection dataset and the 2015 MICCAI gland segmentation competition dataset. Experimental results indicate that CAggNet improves medical object recognition and achieves a more accurate and efficient segmentation compared to existing improved U-Net and UNet++ structure.

Pose-Based Body Language Recognition for Emotion and Psychiatric Symptom Interpretation

Zhengyuan Yang, Amanda Kay, Yuncheng Li, Wendi Cross, Jiebo Luo
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T2.1

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Auto-TLDR; Body Language Based Emotion Recognition for Psychiatric Symptoms Prediction

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Inspired by the human ability to infer emotions from body language, we propose an automated framework for body language based emotion recognition starting from regular RGB videos. In collaboration with psychologists, we further extend the framework for psychiatric symptom prediction. Because a specific application domain of the proposed framework may only supply a limited amount of data, the framework is designed to work on a small training set and possess a good transferability. The proposed system in the first stage generates sequences of body language predictions based on human poses estimated from input videos. In the second stage, the predicted sequences are fed into a temporal network for emotion interpretation and psychiatric symptom prediction. We first validate the accuracy and transferability of the proposed body language recognition method on several public action recognition datasets. We then evaluate the framework on a proposed URMC dataset, which consists of conversations between a standardized patient and a behavioral health professional, along with expert annotations of body language, emotions, and potential psychiatric symptoms. The proposed framework outperforms other methods on the URMC dataset.

Attention-Oriented Action Recognition for Real-Time Human-Robot Interaction

Ziyang Song, Ziyi Yin, Zejian Yuan, Chong Zhang, Wanchao Chi, Yonggen Ling, Shenghao Zhang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.7

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Auto-TLDR; Attention-Oriented Multi-Level Network for Action Recognition in Interaction Scenes

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Despite the notable progress made in action recognition tasks, not much work has been done in action recognition specifically for human-robot interaction. In this paper, we deeply explore the characteristics of the action recognition task in interaction scenes and propose an attention-oriented multi-level network framework to meet the need for real-time interaction. Specifically, a Pre-Attention network is employed to roughly focus on the interactor in the scene at low resolution firstly and then perform fine-grained pose estimation at high resolution. The other compact CNN receives the extracted skeleton sequence as input for action recognition, utilizing attention-like mechanisms to capture local spatial-temporal patterns and global semantic information effectively. To evaluate our approach, we construct a new action dataset specially for the recognition task in interaction scenes. Experimental results on our dataset and high efficiency (112 fps at 640 x 480 RGBD) on the mobile computing platform (Nvidia Jetson AGX Xavier) demonstrate excellent applicability of our method on action recognition in real-time human-robot interaction.

A Multi-Task Neural Network for Action Recognition with 3D Key-Points

Rongxiao Tang, Wang Luyang, Zhenhua Guo
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-task Neural Network for Action Recognition and 3D Human Pose Estimation

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Action recognition and 3D human pose estimation are the fundamental problems in computer vision and closely related. In this work, we propose a multi-task neural network for action recognition and 3D human pose estimation. The results of the previous methods are still error-prone especially when tested against the images taken in-the-wild, leading error results in action recognition. To solve this problem, we propose a principled approach to generate high quality 3D pose ground truth given any in-the-wild image with a person inside. We achieve this by first devising a novel stereo inspired neural network to directly map any 2D pose to high quality 3D counterpart. Based on the high-quality 3D labels, we carefully design the multi-task framework for action recognition and 3D human pose estimation. The proposed architecture can utilize the shallow, deep features of the images, and the in-the-wild 3D human key-points to guide a more precise result. High quality 3D key-points can fully reflect the morphological features of motions, thus boosting the performance on action recognition. Experiments demonstrate that 3D pose estimation leads to significantly higher performance on action recognition than separated learning. We also evaluate the generalization ability of our method both quantitatively and qualitatively. The proposed architecture performs favorably against the baseline 3D pose estimation methods. In addition, the reported results on Penn Action and NTU datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the action recognition task.

Activity Recognition Using First-Person-View Cameras Based on Sparse Optical Flows

Peng-Yuan Kao, Yan-Jing Lei, Chia-Hao Chang, Chu-Song Chen, Ming-Sui Lee, Yi-Ping Hung
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; 3D Convolutional Neural Network for Activity Recognition with FPV Videos

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First-person-view (FPV) cameras are finding wide use in daily life to record activities and sports. In this paper, we propose a succinct and robust 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture accompanied with an ensemble-learning network for activity recognition with FPV videos. The proposed 3D CNN is trained on low-resolution (32x32) sparse optical flows using FPV video datasets consisting of daily activities. According to the experimental results, our network achieves an average accuracy of 90%.

Flow-Guided Spatial Attention Tracking for Egocentric Activity Recognition

Tianshan Liu, Kin-Man Lam
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.4

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Auto-TLDR; flow-guided spatial attention tracking for egocentric activity recognition

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The popularity of wearable cameras has opened up a new dimension for egocentric activity recognition. While some methods introduce attention mechanisms into deep learning networks to capture fine-grained hand-object interactions, they often neglect exploring the spatio-temporal relationships. Generating spatial attention, without adequately exploiting temporal consistency, will result in potentially sub-optimal performance in the video-based task. In this paper, we propose a flow-guided spatial attention tracking (F-SAT) module, which is based on enhancing motion patterns and inter-frame information, to highlight the discriminative features from regions of interest across a video sequence. A new form of input, namely the optical-flow volume, is presented to provide informative cues from moving parts for spatial attention tracking. The proposed F-SAT module is deployed to a two-branch-based deep architecture, which fuses complementary information for egocentric activity recognition. Experimental results on three egocentric activity benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Mutual-Supervised Feature Modulation Network for Occluded Pedestrian Detection

Ye He, Chao Zhu, Xu-Cheng Yin
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; A Mutual-Supervised Feature Modulation Network for Occluded Pedestrian Detection

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State-of-the-art pedestrian detectors have achieved significant progress on non-occluded pedestrians, yet they are still struggling under heavy occlusions. The recent occlusion handling strategy of popular two-stage approaches is to build a two-branch architecture with the help of additional visible body annotations. Nonetheless, these methods still have some weaknesses. Either the two branches are trained independently with only score-level fusion, which cannot guarantee the detectors to learn robust enough pedestrian features. Or the attention mechanisms are exploited to only emphasize on the visible body features. However, the visible body features of heavily occluded pedestrians are concentrated on a relatively small area, which will easily cause missing detections. To address the above issues, we propose in this paper a novel Mutual-Supervised Feature Modulation (MSFM) network, to better handle occluded pedestrian detection. The key MSFM module in our network calculates the similarity loss of full body boxes and visible body boxes corresponding to the same pedestrian, so that the full-body detector could learn more complete and robust pedestrian features with the assist of contextual features from the occluding parts. To facilitate the MSFM module, we also propose a novel two-branch architecture, consisting of a standard full body detection branch and an extra visible body classification branch. These two branches are trained in a mutual-supervised way with full body annotations and visible body annotations, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, extensive experiments are conducted on two challenging pedestrian datasets: Caltech and CityPersons, and our approach achieves superior performances compared to other state-of-the-art methods on both datasets, especially in heavy occlusion cases.

A Grid-Based Representation for Human Action Recognition

Soufiane Lamghari, Guillaume-Alexandre Bilodeau, Nicolas Saunier
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T2.1

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Auto-TLDR; GRAR: Grid-based Representation for Action Recognition in Videos

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Human action recognition (HAR) in videos is a fundamental research topic in computer vision. It consists mainly in understanding actions performed by humans based on a sequence of visual observations. In recent years, HAR have witnessed significant progress, especially with the emergence of deep learning models. However, most of existing approaches for action recognition rely on information that is not always relevant for the task, and are limited in the way they fuse temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel method for human action recognition that encodes efficiently the most discriminative appearance information of an action with explicit attention on representative pose features, into a new compact grid representation. Our GRAR (Grid-based Representation for Action Recognition) method is tested on several benchmark datasets that demonstrate that our model can accurately recognize human actions, despite intra-class appearance variations and occlusion challenges.

Video Representation Fusion Network For Multi-Label Movie Genre Classification

Tianyu Bi, Dmitri Jarnikov, Johan Lukkien
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.6

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Auto-TLDR; A Video Representation Fusion Network for Movie Genre Classification

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In this paper, we introduce a Video Representation Fusion Network (VRFN) for movie genre classification. Different from the previous works, which use frame-level features for movie genre classification, our approach uses video classification architecture to create video-level features from a group of frames and fuse these features temporally to learn long-term spatiotemporal information for the movie genre classification task. We use a pre-trained I3D model to generate intermediate video representations and connect it with a C3D-LSTM model for feature fusion and movie genre classification. LMTD-9 dataset which contains 4007 trailers multi-labeled with 9 movie genres is used for training and evaluation of the model. The experimental results demonstrate that learning long-term temporal dependencies by fusing video representations improves the performance in movie genre classification. Our best model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by 3.4% improvement in AUPRC (macro).

Detecting Objects with High Object Region Percentage

Fen Fang, Qianli Xu, Liyuan Li, Ying Gu, Joo-Hwee Lim
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T3.8

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Auto-TLDR; Faster R-CNN for High-ORP Object Detection

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Object shape is a subtle but important factor for object detection. It has been observed that the object-region-percentage (ORP) can be utilized to improve detection accuracy for elongated objects, which have much lower ORPs than other types of objects. In this paper, we propose an approach to improve the detection performance for objects whose ORPs are relatively higher.To address the problem of high-ORP object detection, we propose a method consisting of three steps. First, we adjust the ground truth bounding boxes of high-ORP objects to an optimal range. Second, we train an object detector, Faster R-CNN, based on adjusted bounding boxes to achieve high recall. Finally, we train a DCNN to learn the adjustment ratios towards four directions and adjust detected bounding boxes of objects to get better localization for higher precision. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method on 12 high-ORP objects in COCO and 8 objects in a proprietary gearbox dataset. The experimental results show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance on these objects while costing less resources in training and inference stages.

MixTConv: Mixed Temporal Convolutional Kernels for Efficient Action Recognition

Kaiyu Shan, Yongtao Wang, Zhi Tang, Ying Chen, Yangyan Li
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Mixed Temporal Convolution for Action Recognition

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To efficiently extract spatiotemporal features of video for action recognition, most state-of-the-art methods integrate 1D temporal convolution into a conventional 2D CNN backbone. However, they all exploit 1D temporal convolution of fixed kernel size (i.e., 3) in the network building block, thus have suboptimal temporal modeling capability to handle both long term and short-term actions. To address this problem, we first investigate the impacts of different kernel sizes for the 1D temporal convolutional filters. Then, we propose a simple yet efficient operation called Mixed Temporal Convolution (MixTConv) in methodology, which consists of multiple depthwise 1D convolutional filters with different kernel sizes. By plugging MixTConv into the conventional 2D CNN backbone ResNet-50, we further propose an efficient and effective network architecture named MSTNet for action recognition, and achieve state-of-the-art results on multiple large-scale benchmarks.

TSMSAN: A Three-Stream Multi-Scale Attentive Network for Video Saliency Detection

Jingwen Yang, Guanwen Zhang, Wei Zhou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Three-stream Multi-scale attentive network for video saliency detection in dynamic scenes

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Video saliency detection is an important low-level task that has been used in a large range of high-level applications. In this paper, we proposed a three-stream multi-scale attentive network (TSMSAN) for saliency detection in dynamic scenes. TSMSAN integrates motion vector representation, static saliency map, and RGB information in multi-scales together into one framework on the basis of Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) and spatial attention mechanism. On the one hand, the respective motion features, spatial features, as well as the scene features can provide abundant information for video saliency detection. On the other hand, spatial attention mechanism can combine features with multi-scales to focus on key information in dynamic scenes. In this manner, the proposed TSMSAN can encode the spatiotemporal features of the dynamic scene comprehensively. We evaluate the proposed approach on two public dynamic saliency data sets. The experimental results demonstrate TSMSAN is able to achieve the state-of-the-art performance as well as the excellent generalization ability. Furthermore, the proposed TSMSAN can provide more convincing video saliency information, in line with human perception.

Activity and Relationship Modeling Driven Weakly Supervised Object Detection

Yinlin Li, Yang Qian, Xu Yang, Yuren Zhang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Weakly Supervised Object Detection Using Activity Label and Relationship Modeling

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This paper presents a weakly supervised object detection method based on activity label and relationship modeling, which is motivated by the assumption that configuration of human and object are similar in same activity, and joint modeling of human, active object and activity could leverage the recognition of them. Compared to most weakly supervised method taking object as independent instance, firstly, active human and object proposals are learned and filtered based on class activation map of multi-label classification. Secondly, a spatial relationship prior including relative position, scale, overlaps etc are learned dependent on action. Finally, a multi-stream object detection framework integrating the spatial prior and pairwise ROI pooling are proposed to jointly learn the object and action class. Experiments are conducted on HICO-DET dataset, and our approach outperforms the state of the art weakly supervised object detection methods.

Attentive Visual Semantic Specialized Network for Video Captioning

Jesus Perez-Martin, Benjamin Bustos, Jorge Pérez
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Adaptive Visual Semantic Specialized Network for Video Captioning

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As an essential high-level task of video understanding topic, automatically describing a video with natural language has recently gained attention as a fundamental challenge in computer vision. Previous models for video captioning have several limitations, such as the existence of gaps in current semantic representations and the inexpressibility of the generated captions. To deal with these limitations, in this paper, we present a new architecture that we callAttentive Visual Semantic Specialized Network(AVSSN), which is an encoder-decoder model based on our Adaptive Attention Gate and Specialized LSTM layers. This architecture can selectively decide when to use visual or semantic information into the text generation process. The adaptive gate makes the decoder to automatically select the relevant information for providing a better temporal state representation than the existing decoders. Besides, the model is capable of learning to improve the expressiveness of generated captions attending to their length, using a sentence-length-related loss function. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the Microsoft Video Description(MSVD) and the Microsoft Research Video-to-Text (MSR-VTT) datasets, achieving state-of-the-art performance with several popular evaluation metrics: BLEU-4, METEOR, CIDEr, and ROUGE_L.

Extracting Action Hierarchies from Action Labels and their Use in Deep Action Recognition

Konstadinos Bacharidis, Antonis Argyros
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Exploiting the Information Content of Language Label Associations for Human Action Recognition

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Human activity recognition is a fundamental and challenging task in computer vision. Its solution can support multiple and diverse applications in areas including but not limited to smart homes, surveillance, daily living assistance, Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC), etc. In realistic conditions, the complexity of human activities ranges from simple coarse actions, such as siting or standing up, to more complex activities that consist of multiple actions with subtle variations in appearance and motion patterns. A large variety of existing datasets target specific action classes, with some of them being coarse and others being fine-grained. In all of them, a description of the action and its complexity is manifested in the action label sentence. As the action/activity complexity increases, so is the label sentence size and the amount of action-related semantic information contained in this description. In this paper, we propose an approach to exploit the information content of these action labels to formulate a coarse-to-fine action hierarchy based on linguistic label associations, and investigate the potential benefits and drawbacks. Moreover, in a series of quantitative and qualitative experiments, we show that the exploitation of this hierarchical organization of action classes in different levels of granularity improves the learning speed and overall performance of a range of baseline and mid-range deep architectures for human action recognition (HAR).

Hierarchical Multimodal Attention for Deep Video Summarization

Melissa Sanabria, Frederic Precioso, Thomas Menguy
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; Automatic Summarization of Professional Soccer Matches Using Event-Stream Data and Multi- Instance Learning

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The way people consume sports on TV has drastically evolved in the last years, particularly under the combined effects of the legalization of sport betting and the huge increase of sport analytics. Several companies are nowadays sending observers in the stadiums to collect live data of all the events happening on the field during the match. Those data contain meaningful information providing a very detailed description of all the actions occurring during the match to feed the coaches and staff, the fans, the viewers, and the gamblers. Exploiting all these data, sport broadcasters want to generate extra content such as match highlights, match summaries, players and teams analytics, etc., to appeal subscribers. This paper explores the problem of summarizing professional soccer matches as automatically as possible using both the aforementioned event-stream data collected from the field and the content broadcasted on TV. We have designed an architecture, introducing first (1) a Multiple Instance Learning method that takes into account the sequential dependency among events and then (2) a hierarchical multimodal attention layer that grasps the importance of each event in an action. We evaluate our approach on matches from two professional European soccer leagues, showing its capability to identify the best actions for automatic summarization by comparing with real summaries made by human operators.

DualBox: Generating BBox Pair with Strong Correspondence Via Occlusion Pattern Clustering and Proposal Refinement

Zheng Ge, Chuyu Hu, Xin Huang, Baiqiao Qiu, Osamu Yoshie
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; R2NMS: Combining Full and Visible Body Bounding Box for Dense Pedestrian Detection

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Despite the rapid development of pedestrian detection, the problem of dense pedestrian detection is still unsolved, especially the upper limit of Recall caused by Non-Maximum-Suppression (NMS). Out of this reason, R2NMS is proposed to simultaneously detect full and visible body bounding boxes, by replacing the full body BBoxes with less occluded visible body BBoxes in the NMS algorithm, achieving a higher recall. However, the P-RPN and P-RCNN modules proposed in R2NMS for simultaneous high quality full and visible body prediction require non-trivial positive/negative assigning strategies for anchor BBoxes. To simplify the prerequisites and improve the utility of R2NMS, we incorporate clustering analysis into the learning of visible body proposals from full body proposals. Furthermore, to reduce the computation complexity caused by the large number of potential visible body proposals, we introduce a novel occlusion pattern prediction branch on top of the R-CNN module (i.e. F-RCNN) to select the best matched visible proposals for each full body proposals and then feed them into another R-CNN module (i.e. V-RCNN). Incorporated with R2NMS, our DualBox model can achieve competitive performance while only requires few hyper-parameters. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the CrowdHuman and CityPersons datasets. Experimental results show that our approach achieves promising performance for detecting both non-occluded and occluded pedestrians, especially heavily occluded ones.