F-Mixup: Attack CNNs from Fourier Perspective

Xiu-Chuan Li, Xu-Yao Zhang, Fei Yin, Cheng-Lin Liu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; F-Mixup: A novel black-box attack in frequency domain for deep neural networks

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Recent research has revealed that deep neural networks are highly vulnerable to adversarial examples. In this paper, different from most adversarial attacks which directly modify pixels in spatial domain, we propose a novel black-box attack in frequency domain, named as f-mixup, based on the property of natural images and perception disparity between human-visual system (HVS) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs): First, natural images tend to have the bulk of their Fourier spectrums concentrated on the low frequency domain; Second, HVS is much less sensitive to high frequencies while CNNs can utilize both low and high frequency information to make predictions. Extensive experiments are conducted and show that deeper CNNs tend to concentrate more on the high frequency domain, which may explain the contradiction between robustness and accuracy. In addition, we compared f-mixup with existing attack methods and observed that our approach possesses great advantages. Finally, we show that f-mixup can be also incorporated in training to make deep CNNs defensible against a kind of perturbations effectively.

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Defense Mechanism against Adversarial Attacks Using Density-Based Representation of Images

Yen-Ting Huang, Wen-Hung Liao, Chen-Wei Huang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Adversarial Attacks Reduction Using Input Recharacterization

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Adversarial examples are slightly modified inputs devised to cause erroneous inference of deep learning models. Protection against the intervention of adversarial examples is a fundamental issue that needs to be addressed before the wide adoption of deep-learning based intelligent systems. In this research, we utilize the method known as input recharacterization to effectively eliminate the perturbations found in the adversarial examples. By converting images from the intensity domain into density-based representation using halftoning operation, performance of the classifier can be properly maintained. With adversarial attacks generated using FGSM, I-FGSM, and PGD, the top-5 accuracy of the hybrid model can still achieve 80.97%, 78.77%, 81.56%, respectively. Although the accuracy has been slightly affected, the influence of adversarial examples is significantly discounted. The average improvement over existing input transform defense mechanisms is approximately 10%.

Adversarially Training for Audio Classifiers

Raymel Alfonso Sallo, Mohammad Esmaeilpour, Patrick Cardinal
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Adversarially Training for Robust Neural Networks against Adversarial Attacks

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In this paper, we investigate the potential effect of the adversarially training on the robustness of six advanced deep neural networks against a variety of targeted and non-targeted adversarial attacks. We firstly show that, the ResNet-56 model trained on the 2D representation of the discrete wavelet transform appended with the tonnetz chromagram outperforms other models in terms of recognition accuracy. Then we demonstrate the positive impact of adversarially training on this model as well as other deep architectures against six types of attack algorithms (white and black-box) with the cost of the reduced recognition accuracy and limited adversarial perturbation. We run our experiments on two benchmarking environmental sound datasets and show that without any imposed limitations on the budget allocations for the adversary, the fooling rate of the adversarially trained models can exceed 90%. In other words, adversarial attacks exist in any scales, but they might require higher adversarial perturbations compared to non-adversarially trained models.

Attack Agnostic Adversarial Defense via Visual Imperceptible Bound

Saheb Chhabra, Akshay Agarwal, Richa Singh, Mayank Vatsa
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Robust Adversarial Defense with Visual Imperceptible Bound

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High susceptibility of deep learning algorithms against structured and unstructured perturbations has motivated the development of efficient adversarial defense algorithms. However, the lack of generalizability of existing defense algorithms and the high variability in the performance of the attack algorithms for different databases raises several questions on the effectiveness of the defense algorithms. In this research, we aim to design a defense model that is robust within the certain bound against both seen and unseen adversarial attacks. This bound is related to the visual appearance of an image and we termed it as \textit{Visual Imperceptible Bound (VIB)}. To compute this bound, we propose a novel method that uses the database characteristics. The VIB is further used to compute the effectiveness of attack algorithms. In order to design a defense model, we propose a defense algorithm which makes the model robust within the VIB against both seen and unseen attacks. The performance of the proposed defense algorithm and the method to compute VIB are evaluated on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and Tiny ImageNet databases on multiple attacks including C\&W ($l_2$) and DeepFool. The proposed defense algorithm is not only able to increase the robustness against several attacks but also retain or improve the classification accuracy on an original clean test set. Experimentally, it is demonstrated that the proposed defense is better than existing strong defense algorithms based on adversarial retraining. We have additionally performed the PGD attack in white box settings and compared the results with the existing algorithms. The proposed defense is independent of the target model and adversarial attacks, and therefore can be utilized against any attack.

Variational Inference with Latent Space Quantization for Adversarial Resilience

Vinay Kyatham, Deepak Mishra, Prathosh A.P.
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.9

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Auto-TLDR; A Generalized Defense Mechanism for Adversarial Attacks on Data Manifolds

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Despite their tremendous success in modelling highdimensional data manifolds, deep neural networks suffer from the threat of adversarial attacks - Existence of perceptually valid input-like samples obtained through careful perturbation that lead to degradation in the performance of the underlying model. Major concerns with existing defense mechanisms include non-generalizability across different attacks, models and large inference time. In this paper, we propose a generalized defense mechanism capitalizing on the expressive power of regularized latent space based generative models. We design an adversarial filter, devoid of access to classifier and adversaries, which makes it usable in tandem with any classifier. The basic idea is to learn a Lipschitz constrained mapping from the data manifold, incorporating adversarial perturbations, to a quantized latent space and re-map it to the true data manifold. Specifically, we simultaneously auto-encode the data manifold and its perturbations implicitly through the perturbations of the regularized and quantized generative latent space, realized using variational inference. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed formulation in providing resilience against multiple attack types (black and white box) and methods, while being almost real-time. Our experiments show that the proposed method surpasses the stateof-the-art techniques in several cases.

Accuracy-Perturbation Curves for Evaluation of Adversarial Attack and Defence Methods

Jaka Šircelj, Danijel Skocaj
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Accuracy-perturbation Curve for Robustness Evaluation of Adversarial Examples

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With more research published on adversarial examples, we face a growing need for strong and insightful methods for evaluating the robustness of machine learning solutions against their adversarial threats. Previous work contains problematic and overly simplified evaluation methods, where different methods for generating adversarial examples are compared, even though they produce adversarial examples of differing perturbation magnitudes. This creates a biased evaluation environment, as higher perturbations yield naturally stronger adversarial examples. We propose a novel "accuracy-perturbation curve" that visualizes a classifiers classification accuracy response to adversarial examples of different perturbations. To demonstrate the utility of the curve we perform evaluation of responses of different image classifier architectures to four popular adversarial example methods. We also show how adversarial training improves the robustness of a classifier using the "accuracy-perturbation curve".

Verifying the Causes of Adversarial Examples

Honglin Li, Yifei Fan, Frieder Ganz, Tony Yezzi, Payam Barnaghi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Exploring the Causes of Adversarial Examples in Neural Networks

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The robustness of neural networks is challenged by adversarial examples that contain almost imperceptible perturbations to inputs which mislead a classifier to incorrect outputs in high confidence. Limited by the extreme difficulty in examining a high-dimensional image space thoroughly, research on explaining and justifying the causes of adversarial examples falls behind studies on attacks and defenses. In this paper, we present a collection of potential causes of adversarial examples and verify (or partially verify) them through carefully-designed controlled experiments. The major causes of adversarial examples include model linearity, one-sum constraint, and geometry of the categories. To control the effect of those causes, multiple techniques are applied such as $L_2$ normalization, replacement of loss functions, construction of reference datasets, and novel models using multi-layer perceptron probabilistic neural networks (MLP-PNN) and density estimation (DE). Our experiment results show that geometric factors tend to be more direct causes and statistical factors magnify the phenomenon, especially for assigning high prediction confidence. We hope this paper will inspire more studies to rigorously investigate the root causes of adversarial examples, which in turn provide useful guidance on designing more robust models.

Optimal Transport As a Defense against Adversarial Attacks

Quentin Bouniot, Romaric Audigier, Angélique Loesch
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Sinkhorn Adversarial Training with Optimal Transport Theory

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Deep learning classifiers are now known to have flaws in the representations of their class. Adversarial attacks can find a human-imperceptible perturbation for a given image that will mislead a trained model. The most effective methods to defend against such attacks trains on generated adversarial examples to learn their distribution. Previous work aimed to align original and adversarial image representations in the same way as domain adaptation to improve robustness. Yet, they partially align the representations using approaches that do not reflect the geometry of space and distribution. In addition, it is difficult to accurately compare robustness between defended models. Until now, they have been evaluated using a fixed perturbation size. However, defended models may react differently to variations of this perturbation size. In this paper, the analogy of domain adaptation is taken a step further by exploiting optimal transport theory. We propose to use a loss between distributions that faithfully reflect the ground distance. This leads to SAT (Sinkhorn Adversarial Training), a more robust defense against adversarial attacks. Then, we propose to quantify more precisely the robustness of a model to adversarial attacks over a wide range of perturbation sizes using a different metric, the Area Under the Accuracy Curve (AUAC). We perform extensive experiments on both CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets and show that our defense is globally more robust than the state-of-the-art.

Adaptive Noise Injection for Training Stochastic Student Networks from Deterministic Teachers

Yi Xiang Marcus Tan, Yuval Elovici, Alexander Binder
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Adaptive Stochastic Networks for Adversarial Attacks

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Adversarial attacks have been a prevalent problem causing misclassification in machine learning models, with stochasticity being a promising direction towards greater robustness. However, stochastic networks frequently underperform compared to deterministic deep networks. In this work, we present a conceptually clear adaptive noise injection mechanism in combination with teacher-initialisation, which adjusts its degree of randomness dynamically through the computation of mini-batch statistics. This mechanism is embedded within a simple framework to obtain stochastic networks from existing deterministic networks. Our experiments show that our method is able to outperform prior baselines under white-box settings, exemplified through CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100. Following which, we perform in-depth analysis on varying different components of training with our approach on the effects of robustness and accuracy, through the study of the evolution of decision boundary and trend curves of clean accuracy/attack success over differing degrees of stochasticity. We also shed light on the effects of adversarial training on a pre-trained network, through the lens of decision boundaries.

Task-based Focal Loss for Adversarially Robust Meta-Learning

Yufan Hou, Lixin Zou, Weidong Liu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Task-based Adversarial Focal Loss for Few-shot Meta-Learner

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Adversarial robustness of machine learning has been widely studied in recent years, and a series of effective methods are proposed to resist adversarial attacks. However, less attention is paid to few-shot meta-learners which are much more vulnerable due to the lack of training samples. In this paper, we propose Task-based Adversarial Focal Loss (TAFL) to handle this tough challenge on a typical meta-learner called MAML. More concretely, we regard few-shot classification tasks as normal samples in learning models and apply focal loss mechanism on them. Our proposed method focuses more on adversarially fragile tasks, leading to improvement on overall model robustness. Results of extensive experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate that TAFL can effectively promote the performance of the meta-learner on adversarial examples with elaborately designed perturbations.

A Delayed Elastic-Net Approach for Performing Adversarial Attacks

Brais Cancela, Veronica Bolon-Canedo, Amparo Alonso-Betanzos
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Robustness of ImageNet Pretrained Models against Adversarial Attacks

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With the rise of the so-called Adversarial Attacks, there is an increased concern on model security. In this paper we present two different contributions: novel measures of robustness (based on adversarial attacks) and a novel adversarial attack. The key idea behind these metrics is to obtain a measure that could compare different architectures, with independence of how the input is preprocessed (robustness against different input sizes and value ranges). To do so, a novel adversarial attack is presented, performing a delayed elastic-net adversarial attack (constraints are only used whenever a successful adversarial attack is obtained). Experimental results show that our approach obtains state-of-the-art adversarial samples, in terms of minimal perturbation distance. Finally, a benchmark of ImageNet pretrained models is used to conduct experiments aiming to shed some light about which model should be selected whenever security is a role factor.

Cost-Effective Adversarial Attacks against Scene Text Recognition

Mingkun Yang, Haitian Zheng, Xiang Bai, Jiebo Luo
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T4.3

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Auto-TLDR; Adversarial Attacks on Scene Text Recognition

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Scene text recognition is a challenging task due to the diversity in text appearance and complexity of natural scenes. Thanks to the development of deep learning and the large volume of training data, scene text recognition has made impressive progress in recent years. However, recent research on adversarial examples has shown that deep learning models are vulnerable to adversarial input with imperceptible changes. As one of the most practical tasks in computer vision, scene text recognition is also facing huge security risks. To our best knowledge, there has been no work on adversarial attacks against scene text recognition. To investigate its effects on scene text recognition, we make the first attempt to attack the state-of-the-art scene text recognizer, i.e., attention-based recognizer. To that end, we first adjust the objective function designed for non-sequential tasks, such as image classification, semantic segmentation and image retrieval, to the sequential form. We then propose a novel and effective objective function to further reduce the amount of perturbation while achieving a higher attack success rate. Comprehensive experiments on several standard benchmarks clearly demonstrate effective adversarial effects on scene text recognition by the proposed attacks.

Beyond Cross-Entropy: Learning Highly Separable Feature Distributions for Robust and Accurate Classification

Arslan Ali, Andrea Migliorati, Tiziano Bianchi, Enrico Magli
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.9

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Auto-TLDR; Gaussian class-conditional simplex loss for adversarial robust multiclass classifiers

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Deep learning has shown outstanding performance in several applications including image classification. However, deep classifiers are known to be highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks, in that a minor perturbation of the input can easily lead to an error. Providing robustness to adversarial attacks is a very challenging task especially in problems involving a large number of classes, as it typically comes at the expense of an accuracy decrease. In this work, we propose the Gaussian class-conditional simplex (GCCS) loss: a novel approach for training deep robust multiclass classifiers that provides adversarial robustness while at the same time achieving or even surpassing the classification accuracy of state-of-the-art methods. Differently from other frameworks, the proposed method learns a mapping of the input classes onto target distributions in a latent space such that the classes are linearly separable. Instead of maximizing the likelihood of target labels for individual samples, our objective function pushes the network to produce feature distributions yielding high inter-class separation. The mean values of the distributions are centered on the vertices of a simplex such that each class is at the same distance from every other class. We show that the regularization of the latent space based on our approach yields excellent classification accuracy and inherently provides robustness to multiple adversarial attacks, both targeted and untargeted, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches over challenging datasets.

AdvHat: Real-World Adversarial Attack on ArcFace Face ID System

Stepan Komkov, Aleksandr Petiushko
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.2

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Auto-TLDR; Adversarial Sticker Attack on ArcFace in Shooting Conditions

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In this paper we propose a novel easily reproducible technique to attack the best public Face ID system ArcFace in different shooting conditions. To create an attack, we print the rectangular paper sticker on a common color printer and put it on the hat. The adversarial sticker is prepared with a novel algorithm for off-plane transformations of the image which imitates sticker location on the hat. Such an approach confuses the state-of-the-art public Face ID model LResNet100E-IR, ArcFace@ms1m-refine-v2 and is transferable to other Face ID models.

Transferable Adversarial Attacks for Deep Scene Text Detection

Shudeng Wu, Tao Dai, Guanghao Meng, Bin Chen, Jian Lu, Shutao Xia
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T 4.2

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Auto-TLDR; Robustness of DNN-based STD methods against Adversarial Attacks

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Scene text detection (STD) aims to locate text in images and plays an important role in many computer vision tasks including automatic driving and text recognition systems. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely and successfully used in scene text detection, leading to plenty of DNN-based STD methods including regression-based and segmentation-based STD methods. However, recent studies have also shown that DNN is vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which can significantly degrade the performance of DNN models. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of DNN-based STD methods against adversarial attacks. To this end, we propose a generic and efficient attack method to generate adversarial examples, which are produced by adding small but imperceptible adversarial perturbation to the input images. Experiments on attacking four various models and a real-world STD engine of Google optical character recognition (OCR) show that the state-of-the-art DNN-based STD methods including regression-based and segmentation-based methods are vulnerable to adversarial attacks.

Explain2Attack: Text Adversarial Attacks via Cross-Domain Interpretability

Mahmoud Hossam, Le Trung, He Zhao, Dinh Phung
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Transfer2Attack: A Black-box Adversarial Attack on Text Classification

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Training robust deep learning models is a critical challenge for downstream tasks. Research has shown that common down-stream models can be easily fooled with adversarial inputs that look like the training data, but slightly perturbed, in a way imperceptible to humans. Understanding the behavior of natural language models under these attacks is crucial to better defend these models against such attacks. In the black-box attack setting, where no access to model parameters is available, the attacker can only query the output information from the targeted model to craft a successful attack. Current black-box state-of-the-art models are costly in both computational complexity and number of queries needed to craft successful adversarial examples. For real world scenarios, the number of queries is critical, where less queries are desired to avoid suspicion towards an attacking agent. In this paper, we propose Transfer2Attack, a black-box adversarial attack on text classification task, that employs cross-domain interpretability to reduce target model queries during attack. We show that our framework either achieves or out-performs attack rates of the state-of-the-art models, yet with lower queries cost and higher efficiency.

Towards Explaining Adversarial Examples Phenomenon in Artificial Neural Networks

Ramin Barati, Reza Safabakhsh, Mohammad Rahmati
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Convolutional Neural Networks and Adversarial Training from the Perspective of convergence

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In this paper, we study the adversarial examples existence and adversarial training from the standpoint of convergence and provide evidence that pointwise convergence in ANNs can explain these observations. The main contribution of our proposal is that it relates the objective of the evasion attacks and adversarial training with concepts already defined in learning theory. Also, we extend and unify some of the other proposals in the literature and provide alternative explanations on the observations made in those proposals. Through different experiments, we demonstrate that the framework is valuable in the study of the phenomenon and is applicable to real-world problems.

CCA: Exploring the Possibility of Contextual Camouflage Attack on Object Detection

Shengnan Hu, Yang Zhang, Sumit Laha, Ankit Sharma, Hassan Foroosh
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Contextual camouflage attack for object detection

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Deep neural network based object detection has become the cornerstone of many real-world applications. Along with this success comes concerns about its vulnerability to malicious attacks. To gain more insight into this issue, we propose a contextual camouflage attack (CCA for short) algorithm to influence the performance of object detectors. In this paper, we use an evolutionary search strategy and adversarial machine learning in interactions with a photo-realistic simulated environment to find camouflage patterns that are effective over a huge variety of object locations, camera poses, and lighting conditions. The proposed camouflages are validated effective to most of the state-of-the-art object detectors.

Polynomial Universal Adversarial Perturbations for Person Re-Identification

Wenjie Ding, Xing Wei, Rongrong Ji, Xiaopeng Hong, Yihong Gong
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Polynomial Universal Adversarial Perturbation for Re-identification Methods

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In this paper, we focus on Universal Adversarial Perturbations (UAP) attack on state-of-the-art person re-identification (Re-ID) methods. Existing UAP methods usually compute a perturbation image and add it to the images of interest. Such a simple constant form greatly limits the attack power. To address this problem, we extend the formulation of UAP to a polynomial form and propose the Polynomial Universal Adversarial Perturbation (PUAP). Unlike traditional UAP methods which only rely on the additive perturbation signal, the proposed PUAP consists of both an additive perturbation and a multiplicative modulation factor. The additive perturbation produces the fundamental component of the signal, while the multiplicative factor modulates the perturbation signal in line with the unit impulse pattern of the input image. Moreover, we design a Pearson correlation coefficient loss to generate universal perturbations, for disrupting the outputs of person Re-ID methods. Extensive experiments on DukeMTMC-ReID, Market-1501, and MARS show that the proposed method can efficiently improve the attack performance, especially when the magnitude of UAP is constrained to a small value.

On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation Improves Uncertainty Calibration

Kanil Patel, William Beluch, Dan Zhang, Michael Pfeiffer, Bin Yang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation for Uncertainty Estimation

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Uncertainty estimates help to identify ambiguous, novel, or anomalous inputs, but the reliable quantification of uncertainty has proven to be challenging for modern deep networks. To improve uncertainty estimation, we propose On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation or OMADA, which specifically attempts to generate challenging examples by following an on-manifold adversarial attack path in the latent space of an autoencoder that closely approximates the decision boundaries between classes. On a variety of datasets and for multiple network architectures, OMADA consistently yields more accurate and better calibrated classifiers than baseline models, and outperforms competing approaches such as Mixup, as well as achieving similar performance to (at times better than) post-processing calibration methods such as temperature scaling. Variants of OMADA can employ different sampling schemes for ambiguous on-manifold examples based on the entropy of their estimated soft labels, which exhibit specific strengths for generalization, calibration of predicted uncertainty, or detection of out-of-distribution inputs.

Killing Four Birds with One Gaussian Process: The Relation between Different Test-Time Attacks

Kathrin Grosse, Michael Thomas Smith, Michael Backes
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Security of Gaussian Process Classifiers against Attack Algorithms

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In machine learning (ML) security, attacks like evasion, model stealing or membership inference are generally studied in individually. Previous work has also shown a relationship between some attacks and decision function curvature of the targeted model. Consequently, we study an ML model allowing direct control over the decision surface curvature: Gaussian Process classifiers (GPCs). For evasion, we find that changing GPC's curvature to be robust against one attack algorithm boils down to enabling a different norm or attack algorithm to succeed. This is backed up by our formal analysis showing that static security guarantees are opposed to learning. Concerning intellectual property, we show formally that lazy learning does not necessarily leak all information when applied. In practice, often a seemingly secure curvature can be found. For example, we are able to secure GPC against empirical membership inference by proper configuration. In this configuration, however, the GPC's hyper-parameters are leaked, e.g. model reverse engineering succeeds. We conclude that attacks on classification should not be studied in isolation, but in relation to each other.

On the Robustness of 3D Human Pose Estimation

Zerui Chen, Yan Huang, Liang Wang
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T2.3

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Auto-TLDR; Robustness of 3D Human Pose Estimation Methods to Adversarial Attacks

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It is widely shown that Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples on most recognition tasks, such as image classification and segmentation. However, few work studies the more complicated task -- 3D human pose estimation. This task often requires large-scale datasets, specialized network architectures, and it can be solved either from single-view RGB images or from multi-view RGB images. In this paper, we make the first attempt to investigate the robustness of current state-of-the-art 3D human pose estimation methods. To this end, we build four representative baseline models, where most of the current methods can be generally classified as one of them. Furthermore, we design targeted adversarial attacks to detect whether 3D pose estimators are robust to different camera parameters. For different types of methods, we present a comprehensive study of their robustness on the large-scale \emph{Human3.6M} benchmark. Our work shows that different methods vary significantly in their resistance to adversarial attacks. Through extensive experiments, we show that multi-view 3D pose estimators can be more vulnerable to adversarial examples. We believe that our efforts can shed light on future works to design more robust 3D human pose estimators.

Attack-Agnostic Adversarial Detection on Medical Data Using Explainable Machine Learning

Matthew Watson, Noura Al Moubayed
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; Explainability-based Detection of Adversarial Samples on EHR and Chest X-Ray Data

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Explainable machine learning has become increasingly prevalent, especially in healthcare where explainable models are vital for ethical and trusted automated decision making. Work on the susceptibility of deep learning models to adversarial attacks has shown the ease of designing samples to mislead a model into making incorrect predictions. In this work, we propose an explainability-based method for the accurate detection of adversarial samples on two datasets with different complexity and properties: Electronic Health Record (EHR) and chest X-ray (CXR) data. On the MIMIC-III and Henan-Renmin EHR datasets, we report a detection accuracy of 77% against the Longitudinal Adversarial Attack. On the MIMIC-CXR dataset, we achieve an accuracy of 88%; significantly improving on the state of the art of adversarial detection in both datasets by over 10% in all settings. We propose an anomaly detection based method using explainability techniques to detect adversarial samples which is able to generalise to different attack methods without a need for retraining.

Learning with Multiplicative Perturbations

Xiulong Yang, Shihao Ji
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; XAT and xVAT: A Multiplicative Adversarial Training Algorithm for Robust DNN Training

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Adversarial Training (AT) and Virtual Adversarial Training (VAT) are the regularization techniques that train Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with adversarial examples generated by adding small but worst-case perturbations to input examples. In this paper, we propose xAT and xVAT, new adversarial training algorithms that generate multiplicative perturbations to input examples for robust training of DNNs. Such perturbations are much more perceptible and interpretable than their additive counterparts exploited by AT and VAT. Furthermore, the multiplicative perturbations can be generated transductively or inductively, while the standard AT and VAT only support a transductive implementation. We conduct a series of experiments that analyze the behavior of the multiplicative perturbations and demonstrate that xAT and xVAT match or outperform state-of-the-art classification accuracies across multiple established benchmarks while being about 30% faster than their additive counterparts. Our source code can be found at https://github.com/sndnyang/xvat

MINT: Deep Network Compression Via Mutual Information-Based Neuron Trimming

Madan Ravi Ganesh, Jason Corso, Salimeh Yasaei Sekeh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Mutual Information-based Neuron Trimming for Deep Compression via Pruning

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Most approaches to deep neural network compression via pruning either evaluate a filter’s importance using its weights or optimize an alternative objective function with sparsity constraints. While these methods offer a useful way to approximate contributions from similar filters, they often either ignore the dependency between layers or solve a more difficult optimization objective than standard cross-entropy. Our method, Mutual Information-based Neuron Trimming (MINT), approaches deep compression via pruning by enforcing sparsity based on the strength of the relationship between filters of adjacent layers, across every pair of layers. The relationship is calculated using conditional geometric mutual information which evaluates the amount of similar information exchanged between the filters using a graph-based criterion. When pruning a network, we ensure that retained filters contribute the majority of the information towards succeeding layers which ensures high performance. Our novel approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art compression-via-pruning methods on the standard benchmarks for this task: MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ILSVRC2012, across a variety of network architectures. In addition, we discuss our observations of a common denominator between our pruning methodology’s response to adversarial attacks and calibration statistics when compared to the original network.

How Does DCNN Make Decisions?

Yi Lin, Namin Wang, Xiaoqing Ma, Ziwei Li, Gang Bai
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Exploring Deep Convolutional Neural Network's Decision-Making Interpretability

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Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN), despite imitating the human visual system, present no such decision credibility as human observers. This phenomenon, therefore, leads to the limitations of DCNN's applications in the security and trusted computing, such as self-driving cars and medical diagnosis. Focusing on this issue, our work aims to explore the way DCNN makes decisions. In this paper, the major contributions we made are: firstly, provide the hypothesis, “point-wise activation” of convolution function, according to the analysis of DCNN’s architectures and training process; secondly, point out the effect of “point-wise activation” on DCNN’s uninterpretable classification and pool robustness, and then suggest, in particular, the contradiction between the traditional and DCNN’s convolution kernel functions; finally, distinguish decision-making interpretability from semantic interpretability, and indicate that DCNN’s decision-making mechanism need to evolve towards the direction of semantics in the future. Besides, the “point-wise activation” hypothesis and conclusions proposed in our paper are supported by extensive experimental results.

Removing Backdoor-Based Watermarks in Neural Networks with Limited Data

Xuankai Liu, Fengting Li, Bihan Wen, Qi Li
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; WILD: A backdoor-based watermark removal framework using limited data

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Deep neural networks have been widely applied and achieved great success in various fields. As training deep models usually consumes massive data and computational resources,trading the trained deep models is highly-demanded and lucrative nowadays. Unfortunately, the naive trading schemes typicallyinvolves potential risks related to copyright and trustworthiness issues,e.g., a sold model can be illegally resold to others without further authorization to reap huge profits. To tackle this prob-lem, various watermarking techniques are proposed to protect the model intellectual property, amongst which the backdoor-based watermarking is the most commonly-used one. However,the robustness of these watermarking approaches is not well evaluated under realistic settings, such as limited in-distribution data availability and agnostic of watermarking patterns. In this paper, we benchmark the robustness of watermarking, and propose a novel backdoor-based watermark removal framework using limited data, dubbed WILD. The proposed WILD removes the watermarks of deep models with only a small portion of training data, and the output model can perform the same as models trained from scratch without watermarks injected. In particular, a novel data augmentation method is utilized to mimic the behavior of watermark triggers. Combining with the distribution alignment between the normal and perturbed (e.g.,occluded) data in the feature space, our approach generalizes well on all typical types of trigger contents. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can effectively remove the watermarks without compromising the deep model performance for the original task with the limited access to training data.

Understanding Integrated Gradients with SmoothTaylor for Deep Neural Network Attribution

Gary Shing Wee Goh, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Leander Weber, Wojciech Samek, Alexander Binder
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; SmoothGrad: bridging Integrated Gradients and SmoothGrad from the Taylor's theorem perspective

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Integrated Gradients as an attribution method for deep neural network models offers simple implementability. However, it suffers from noisiness of explanations which affects the ease of interpretability. The SmoothGrad technique is proposed to solve the noisiness issue and smoothen the attribution maps of any gradient-based attribution method. In this paper, we present SmoothTaylor as a novel theoretical concept bridging Integrated Gradients and SmoothGrad, from the Taylor's theorem perspective. We apply the methods to the image classification problem, using the ILSVRC2012 ImageNet object recognition dataset, and a couple of pretrained image models to generate attribution maps. These attribution maps are empirically evaluated using quantitative measures for sensitivity and noise level. We further propose adaptive noising to optimize for the noise scale hyperparameter value. From our experiments, we find that the SmoothTaylor approach together with adaptive noising is able to generate better quality saliency maps with lesser noise and higher sensitivity to the relevant points in the input space as compared to Integrated Gradients.

Local Clustering with Mean Teacher for Semi-Supervised Learning

Zexi Chen, Benjamin Dutton, Bharathkumar Ramachandra, Tianfu Wu, Ranga Raju Vatsavai
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Local Clustering for Semi-supervised Learning

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The Mean Teacher (MT) model of Tarvainen and Valpola has shown favorable performance on several semi-supervised benchmark datasets. MT maintains a teacher model's weights as the exponential moving average of a student model's weights and minimizes the divergence between their probability predictions under diverse perturbations of the inputs. However, MT is known to suffer from confirmation bias, that is, reinforcing incorrect teacher model predictions. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective method called Local Clustering (LC) to mitigate the effect of confirmation bias. In MT, each data point is considered independent of other points during training; however, data points are likely to be close to each other in feature space if they share similar features. Motivated by this, we cluster data points locally by minimizing the pairwise distance between neighboring data points in feature space. Combined with a standard classification cross-entropy objective on labeled data points, the misclassified unlabeled data points are pulled towards high-density regions of their correct class with the help of their neighbors, thus improving model performance. We demonstrate on semi-supervised benchmark datasets SVHN and CIFAR-10 that adding our LC loss to MT yields significant improvements compared to MT and performance comparable to the state of the art in semi-supervised learning.

Transformer-Encoder Detector Module: Using Context to Improve Robustness to Adversarial Attacks on Object Detection

Faisal Alamri, Sinan Kalkan, Nicolas Pugeault
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.6

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Auto-TLDR; Context Module for Robust Object Detection with Transformer-Encoder Detector Module

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Deep neural network approaches have demonstrated high performance in object recognition (CNN) and detection (Faster-RCNN) tasks, but experiments have shown that such architectures are vulnerable to adversarial attacks (FFF, UAP): low amplitude perturbations, barely perceptible by the human eye, can lead to a drastic reduction in labelling performance. This article proposes a new context module, called Transformer-Encoder Detector Module, that can be applied to an object detector to (i) improve the labelling of object instances; and (ii) improve the detector's robustness to adversarial attacks. The proposed model achieves higher mAP, F1 scores and AUC average score of up to 13\% compared to the baseline Faster-RCNN detector, and an mAP score 8 points higher on images subjected to FFF or UAP attacks. The result demonstrates that a simple ad-hoc context module can improve the reliability of object detectors significantly

Delving in the Loss Landscape to Embed Robust Watermarks into Neural Networks

Enzo Tartaglione, Marco Grangetto, Davide Cavagnino, Marco Botta
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Watermark Aware Training of Neural Networks

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In the last decade the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in many fields like image processing or speech recognition has become a common practice because of their effectiveness to solve complex tasks. However, in such a rush, very little attention has been paid to security aspects. In this work we explore the possibility to embed a watermark into the ANN parameters. We exploit model redundancy and adaptation capacity to lock a subset of its parameters to carry the watermark sequence. The watermark can be extracted in a simple way to claim copyright on models but can be very easily attacked with model fine-tuning. To tackle this culprit we devise a novel watermark aware training strategy. We aim at delving into the loss landscape to find an optimal configuration of the parameters such that we are robust to fine-tuning attacks towards the watermarked parameters. Our experimental results on classical ANN models trained on well-known MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets show that the proposed approach makes the embedded watermark robust to fine-tuning and compression attacks.

Boundary Optimised Samples Training for Detecting Out-Of-Distribution Images

Luca Marson, Vladimir Li, Atsuto Maki
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; Boundary Optimised Samples for Out-of-Distribution Input Detection in Deep Convolutional Networks

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This paper presents a new approach to the problem of detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs in image classifications with deep convolutional networks. We leverage so-called boundary samples to enforce low confidence (maximum softmax probabilities) for inputs far away from the training data. In particular, we propose the boundary optimised samples (named BoS) training algorithm for generating them. Unlike existing approaches, it does not require extra generative adversarial network, but achieves the goal by simply back propagating the gradient of an appropriately designed loss function to the input samples. At the end of the BoS training, all the boundary samples are in principle located on a specific level hypersurface with respect to the designed loss. Our contributions are i) the BoS training as an efficient alternative to generate boundary samples, ii) a robust algorithm therewith to enforce low confidence for OOD samples, and iii) experiments demonstrating improved OOD detection over the baseline. We show the performance using standard datasets for training and different test sets including Fashion MNIST, EMNIST, SVHN, and CIFAR-100, preceded by evaluations with a synthetic 2-dimensional dataset that provide an insight for the new procedure.

Improving Gravitational Wave Detection with 2D Convolutional Neural Networks

Siyu Fan, Yisen Wang, Yuan Luo, Alexander Michael Schmitt, Shenghua Yu
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; Two-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks for Gravitational Wave Detection from Time Series with Background Noise

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Sensitive gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as that of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) realize the direct observation of GW signals that confirm Einstein's general theory of relativity. However, it remains challenges to quickly detect faint GW signals from a large number of time series with background noise under unknown probability distributions. Traditional methods such as matched-filtering in general assume Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and are far from being real-time due to its high computational complexity. To avoid these weaknesses, one-dimensional (1D) Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are introduced to achieve fast online detection in milliseconds but do not have enough consideration on the trade-off between the frequency and time features, which will be revisited in this paper through data pre-processing and subsequent two-dimensional (2D) CNNs during offline training to improve the online detection sensitivity. In this work, the input data is pre-processed to form a 2D spectrum by Short-time Fourier transform (STFT), where frequency features are extracted without learning. Then, carrying out two 1D convolutions across time and frequency axes respectively, and concatenating the time-amplitude and frequency-amplitude feature maps with equal proportion subsequently, the frequency and time features are treated equally as the input of our following two-dimensional CNNs. The simulation of our above ideas works on a generated data set with uniformly varying SNR (2-17), which combines the GW signal generated by PYCBC and the background noise sampled directly from LIGO. Satisfying the real-time online detection requirement without noise distribution assumption, the experiments of this paper demonstrate better performance in average compared to that of 1D CNNs, especially in the cases of lower SNR (4-9).

Knowledge Distillation Beyond Model Compression

Fahad Sarfraz, Elahe Arani, Bahram Zonooz
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.11

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Auto-TLDR; Knowledge Distillation from Teacher to Student

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Knowledge distillation (KD) is commonly deemed as an effective model compression technique in which a compact model (student) is trained under the supervision of a larger pretrained model or an ensemble of models (teacher). Various techniques have been proposed since the original formulation, which mimics different aspects of the teacher such as the representation space, decision boundary or intra-data relationship. Some methods replace the one way knowledge distillation from a static teacher with collaborative learning between a cohort of students. Despite the recent advances, a clear understanding of where knowledge resides in a deep neural network and optimal method for capturing knowledge from teacher and transferring it to student still remains an open question. In this study we provide an extensive study on 9 different knowledge distillation methods which covers a broad spectrum of approaches to capture and transfer knowledge. We demonstrate the versatility of the KD framework on different datasets and network architectures under varying capacity gaps between the teacher and student. The study provides intuition for the effects of mimicking different aspects of the teacher and derives insights from the performance of the different distillation approaches to guide the the design of more effective KD methods . Furthermore, our study shows the effectiveness of the KD framework in learning efficiently under varying severity levels of label noise and class imbalance, consistently providing significant generalization gains over standard training. We emphasize that the efficacy of KD goes much beyond a model compression technique and should be considered as a general purpose training paradigm which offers more robustness to common challenges in the real-world datasets compared to the standard training procedure.

Watermelon: A Novel Feature Selection Method Based on Bayes Error Rate Estimation and a New Interpretation of Feature Relevance and Redundancy

Xiang Xie, Wilhelm Stork
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Feature Selection Using Bayes Error Rate Estimation for Dynamic Feature Selection

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Feature selection has become a crucial part of many classification problems in which high-dimensional datasets may contain tens of thousands of features. In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection method scoring the features through estimating the Bayes error rate based on kernel density estimation. Additionally, we update the scores of features dynamically by quantitatively interpreting the effects of feature relevance and redundancy in a new way. Distinguishing from the common heuristic applied by many feature selection methods, which prefers choosing features that are not relevant to each other, our approach penalizes only monotonically correlated features and rewards any other kind of relevance among features based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and normalized mutual information. We conduct extensive experiments on seventeen diverse classification benchmarks, the results show that our approach overperforms other seventeen popular state-of-the-art feature selection methods in most cases.

MetaMix: Improved Meta-Learning with Interpolation-based Consistency Regularization

Yangbin Chen, Yun Ma, Tom Ko, Jianping Wang, Qing Li
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; MetaMix: A Meta-Agnostic Meta-Learning Algorithm for Few-Shot Classification

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Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning (MAML) and its variants are popular few-shot classification methods. They train an initializer across a variety of sampled learning tasks (also known as episodes) such that the initialized model can adapt quickly to new tasks. However, within each episode, current MAML-based algorithms have limitations in forming generalizable decision boundaries using only a few training examples. In this paper, we propose an approach called MetaMix. It generates virtual examples within each episode to regularize the backbone models. MetaMix can be applied in any of the MAML-based algorithms and learn the decision boundaries which are more generalizable to new tasks. Experiments on the mini-ImageNet, CUB, and FC100 datasets show that MetaMix improves the performance of MAML-based algorithms and achieves the state-of-the-art result when applied in Meta-Transfer Learning.

Discriminative Multi-Level Reconstruction under Compact Latent Space for One-Class Novelty Detection

Jaewoo Park, Yoon Gyo Jung, Andrew Teoh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Discriminative Compact AE for One-Class novelty detection and Adversarial Example Detection

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In one-class novelty detection, a model learns solely on the in-class data to single out out-class instances. Autoencoder (AE) variants aim to compactly model the in-class data to reconstruct it exclusively, thus differentiating the in-class from out-class by the reconstruction error. However, compact modeling in an improper way might collapse the latent representations of the in-class data and thus their reconstruction, which would lead to performance deterioration. Moreover, to properly measure the reconstruction error of high-dimensional data, a metric is required that captures high-level semantics of the data. To this end, we propose Discriminative Compact AE (DCAE) that learns both compact and collapse-free latent representations of the in-class data, thereby reconstructing them both finely and exclusively. In DCAE, (a) we force a compact latent space to bijectively represent the in-class data by reconstructing them through internal discriminative layers of generative adversarial nets. (b) Based on the deep encoder's vulnerability to open set risk, out-class instances are encoded into the same compact latent space and reconstructed poorly without sacrificing the quality of in-class data reconstruction. (c) In inference, the reconstruction error is measured by a novel metric that computes the dissimilarity between a query and its reconstruction based on the class semantics captured by the internal discriminator. Extensive experiments on public image datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposed model on both novelty and adversarial example detection, delivering state-of-the-art performance.

Adversarially Constrained Interpolation for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Mohamed Azzam, Aurele Tohokantche Gnanha, Hau-San Wong, Si Wu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Domain Mixup Strategy

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We address the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) which aims at adapting models trained on a labeled domain to a completely unlabeled domain. One way to achieve this goal is to learn a domain-invariant representation. However, this approach is subject to two challenges: samples from two domains are insufficient to guarantee domain-invariance at most part of the latent space, and neighboring samples from the target domain may not belong to the same class on the low-dimensional manifold. To mitigate these shortcomings, we propose two strategies. First, we incorporate a domain mixup strategy in domain adversarial learning model by linearly interpolating between the source and target domain samples. This allows the latent space to be continuous and yields an improvement of the domain matching. Second, the domain discriminator is regularized via judging the relative difference between both domains for the input mixup features, which speeds up the domain matching. Experiment results show that our proposed model achieves a superior performance on different tasks under various domain shifts and data complexity.

Adversarial Training for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis with BERT

Akbar Karimi, Andrea Prati, Leonardo Rossi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Adversarial Training of BERT for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

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Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) studies the extraction of sentiments and their targets. Collecting labeled data for this task in order to help neural networks generalize better can be laborious and time-consuming. As an alternative, similar data to the real-world examples can be produced artificially through an adversarial process which is carried out in the embedding space. Although these examples are not real sentences, they have been shown to act as a regularization method which can make neural networks more robust. In this work, we fine-tune the general purpose BERT and domain specific post-trained BERT (BERT-PT) using adversarial training. After improving the results of post-trained BERT with different hyperparameters, we propose a novel architecture called BERT Adversarial Training (BAT) to utilize adversarial training for the two major tasks of Aspect Extraction and Aspect Sentiment Classification in sentiment analysis. The proposed model outperforms the general BERT as well as the in-domain post-trained BERT in both tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of adversarial training in ABSA. The code is publicly available on a GitHub repository at https://github.com/IMPLabUniPr/Adversarial-Training-fo r-ABSA

Face Anti-Spoofing Using Spatial Pyramid Pooling

Lei Shi, Zhuo Zhou, Zhenhua Guo
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.2

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Auto-TLDR; Spatial Pyramid Pooling for Face Anti-Spoofing

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Face recognition system is vulnerable to many kinds of presentation attacks, so how to effectively detect whether the image is from the real face is particularly important. At present, many deep learning-based anti-spoofing methods have been proposed. But these approaches have some limitations, for example, global average pooling (GAP) easily loses local information of faces, single-scale features easily ignore information differences in different scales, while a complex network is prune to be overfitting. In this paper, we propose a face anti-spoofing approach using spatial pyramid pooling (SPP). Firstly, we use ResNet-18 with a small amount of parameter as the basic model to avoid overfitting. Further, we use spatial pyramid pooling module in the single model to enhance local features while fusing multi-scale information. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on three databases, CASIA-FASD, Replay-Attack and CASIA-SURF. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve state-of-the-art performance.

Generalization Comparison of Deep Neural Networks Via Output Sensitivity

Mahsa Forouzesh, Farnood Salehi, Patrick Thiran
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Generalization of Deep Neural Networks using Sensitivity

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Although recent works have brought some insights into the performance improvement of techniques used in state-of-the-art deep-learning models, more work is needed to understand their generalization properties. We shed light on this matter by linking the loss function to the output's sensitivity to its input. We find a rather strong empirical relation between the output sensitivity and the variance in the bias-variance decomposition of the loss function, which hints on using sensitivity as a metric for comparing the generalization performance of networks, without requiring labeled data. We find that sensitivity is decreased by applying popular methods which improve the generalization performance of the model, such as (1) using a deep network rather than a wide one, (2) adding convolutional layers to baseline classifiers instead of adding fully-connected layers, (3) using batch normalization, dropout and max-pooling, and (4) applying parameter initialization techniques.

Revisiting Graph Neural Networks: Graph Filtering Perspective

Hoang Nguyen-Thai, Takanori Maehara, Tsuyoshi Murata
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Two-Layers Graph Convolutional Network with Graph Filters Neural Network

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In this work, we develop quantitative results to the learnability of a two-layers Graph Convolutional Network (GCN). Instead of analyzing GCN under some classes of functions, our approach provides a quantitative gap between a two-layers GCN and a two-layers MLP model. From the graph signal processing perspective, we provide useful insights to some flaws of graph neural networks for vertex classification. We empirically demonstrate a few cases when GCN and other state-of-the-art models cannot learn even when true vertex features are extremely low-dimensional. To demonstrate our theoretical findings and propose a solution to the aforementioned adversarial cases, we build a proof of concept graph neural network model with different filters named Graph Filters Neural Network (gfNN).

Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization When Learning from Small Sample

Idan Azuri, Daphna Weinshall
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; GLICO: Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization for Small Sample Learning

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We revisit the long-standing problem of learning from small sample. The generation of new samples from a small training set of labeled points has attracted increased attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel such method called GLICO (Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization). GLICO learns a mapping from the training examples to a latent space and a generator that generates images from vectors in the latent space. Unlike most recent work, which rely on access to large amounts of unlabeled data, GLICO does not require access to any additional data other than the small set of labeled points. In fact, GLICO learns to synthesize completely new samples for every class using as little as 5 or 10 examples per class, with as few as 10 such classes and no data from unknown classes. GLICO is then used to augment the small training set while training a classifier on the small sample. To this end, our proposed method samples the learned latent space using spherical interpolation (slerp) and generates new examples using the trained generator. Empirical results show that the new sampled set is diverse enough, leading to improvement in image classification in comparison with the state of the art when trained on small samples obtained from CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and CUB-200.

Color, Edge, and Pixel-Wise Explanation of Predictions Based onInterpretable Neural Network Model

Jay Hoon Jung, Youngmin Kwon
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Explainable Deep Neural Network with Edge Detecting Filters

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We design an interpretable network model by introducing explainable components into a Deep Neural Network (DNN). We substituted the first kernels of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and a ResNet-50 with the well-known edge detecting filters such as Sobel, Prewitt, and other filters. Each filters' relative importance scores are measured with a variant of Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP) method proposed by Bach et al. Since the effects of the edge detecting filters are well understood, our model provides three different scores to explain individual predictions: the scores with respect to (1) colors, (2) edge filters, and (3) pixels of the image. Our method provides more tools to analyze the predictions by highlighting the location of important edges and colors in the images. Furthermore, the general features of a category can be shown in our scores as well as individual predictions. At the same time, the model does not degrade performances on MNIST, Fruit360 and ImageNet datasets.

Confidence Calibration for Deep Renal Biopsy Immunofluorescence Image Classification

Federico Pollastri, Juan Maroñas, Federico Bolelli, Giulia Ligabue, Roberto Paredes, Riccardo Magistroni, Costantino Grana
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; A Probabilistic Convolutional Neural Network for Immunofluorescence Classification in Renal Biopsy

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With this work we tackle immunofluorescence classification in renal biopsy, employing state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks. In this setting, the aim of the probabilistic model is to assist an expert practitioner towards identifying the location pattern of antibody deposits within a glomerulus. Since modern neural networks often provide overconfident outputs, we stress the importance of having a reliable prediction, demonstrating that Temperature Scaling, a recently introduced re-calibration technique, can be successfully applied to immunofluorescence classification in renal biopsy. Experimental results demonstrate that the designed model yields good accuracy on the specific task, and that Temperature Scaling is able to provide reliable probabilities, which are highly valuable for such a task given the low inter-rater agreement.

A Joint Representation Learning and Feature Modeling Approach for One-Class Recognition

Pramuditha Perera, Vishal Patel
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Combining Generative Features and One-Class Classification for Effective One-class Recognition

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One-class recognition is traditionally approached either as a representation learning problem or a feature modelling problem. In this work, we argue that both of these approaches have their own limitations; and a more effective solution can be obtained by combining the two. The proposed approach is based on the combination of a generative framework and a one-class classification method. First, we learn generative features using the one-class data with a generative framework. We augment the learned features with the corresponding reconstruction errors to obtain augmented features. Then, we qualitatively identify a suitable feature distribution that reduces the redundancy in the chosen classifier space. Finally, we force the augmented features to take the form of this distribution using an adversarial framework. We test the effectiveness of the proposed method on three one-class classification tasks and obtain state-of-the-art results.

A Weak Coupling of Semi-Supervised Learning with Generative Adversarial Networks for Malware Classification

Shuwei Wang, Qiuyun Wang, Zhengwei Jiang, Xuren Wang, Rongqi Jing
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T5.7

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Auto-TLDR; IMIR: An Improved Malware Image Rescaling Algorithm Using Semi-supervised Generative Adversarial Network

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Malware classification helps to understand its purpose and is also an important part of attack detection. And it is also an important part of discovering attacks. Due to continuous innovation and development of artificial intelligence, it is a trend to combine deep learning with malware classification. In this paper, we propose an improved malware image rescaling algorithm (IMIR) based on local mean algorithm. Its main goal of IMIR is to reduce the loss of information from samples during the process of converting binary files to image files. Therefore, we construct a neural network structure based on VGG model, which is suitable for image classification. In the real world, a mass of malware family labels are inaccurate or lacking. To deal with this situation, we propose a novel method to train the deep neural network by Semi-supervised Generative Adversarial Network (SGAN), which only needs a small amount of malware that have accurate labels about families. By integrating SGAN with weak coupling, we can retain the weak links of supervised part and unsupervised part of SGAN. It improves the accuracy of malware classification by making classifiers more independent of discriminators. The results of experimental demonstrate that our model achieves exhibiting favorable performance. The recalls of each family in our data set are all higher than 93.75%.

ESResNet: Environmental Sound Classification Based on Visual Domain Models

Andrey Guzhov, Federico Raue, Jörn Hees, Andreas Dengel
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T5.6

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Auto-TLDR; Environmental Sound Classification with Short-Time Fourier Transform Spectrograms

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Environmental Sound Classification (ESC) is an active research area in the audio domain and has seen a lot of progress in the past years. However, many of the existing approaches achieve high accuracy by relying on domain-specific features and architectures, making it harder to benefit from advances in other fields (e.g., the image domain). Additionally, some of the past successes have been attributed to a discrepancy of how results are evaluated (i.e., on unofficial splits of the UrbanSound8K (US8K) dataset), distorting the overall progression of the field. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we present a model that is inherently compatible with mono and stereo sound inputs. Our model is based on simple log-power Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) spectrograms and combines them with several well-known approaches from the image domain (i.e., ResNet, Siamese-like networks and attention). We investigate the influence of cross-domain pre-training, architectural changes, and evaluate our model on standard datasets. We find that our model out-performs all previously known approaches in a fair comparison by achieving accuracies of 97.0 % (ESC-10), 91.5 % (ESC-50) and 84.2 % / 85.4 % (US8K mono / stereo). Second, we provide a comprehensive overview of the actual state of the field, by differentiating several previously reported results on the US8K dataset between official or unofficial splits. For better reproducibility, our code (including any re-implementations) is made available.

Towards Robust Learning with Different Label Noise Distributions

Diego Ortego, Eric Arazo, Paul Albert, Noel E O'Connor, Kevin Mcguinness
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling with Semi-supervised Learning

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Noisy labels are an unavoidable consequence of labeling processes and detecting them is an important step towards preventing performance degradations in Convolutional Neural Networks. Discarding noisy labels avoids a harmful memorization, while the associated image content can still be exploited in a semi-supervised learning (SSL) setup. Clean samples are usually identified using the small loss trick, i.e. they exhibit a low loss. However, we show that different noise distributions make the application of this trick less straightforward and propose to continuously relabel all images to reveal a discriminative loss against multiple distributions. SSL is then applied twice, once to improve the clean-noisy detection and again for training the final model. We design an experimental setup based on ImageNet32/64 for better understanding the consequences of representation learning with differing label noise distributions and find that non-uniform out-of-distribution noise better resembles real-world noise and that in most cases intermediate features are not affected by label noise corruption. Experiments in CIFAR-10/100, ImageNet32/64 and WebVision (real-world noise) demonstrate that the proposed label noise Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling (DRPL) approach gives substantial improvements over recent state-of-the-art. Code will be made available.

Auto Encoding Explanatory Examples with Stochastic Paths

Cesar Ali Ojeda Marin, Ramses J. Sanchez, Kostadin Cvejoski, Bogdan Georgiev
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.11

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Auto-TLDR; Semantic Stochastic Path: Explaining a Classifier's Decision Making Process using latent codes

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In this paper we ask for the main factors that determine a classifier's decision making process and uncover such factors by studying latent codes produced by auto-encoding frameworks. To deliver an explanation of a classifier's behaviour, we propose a method that provides series of examples highlighting semantic differences between the classifier's decisions. These examples are generated through interpolations in latent space. We introduce and formalize the notion of a semantic stochastic path, as a suitable stochastic process defined in feature (data) space via latent code interpolations. We then introduce the concept of semantic Lagrangians as a way to incorporate the desired classifier's behaviour and find that the solution of the associated variational problem allows for highlighting differences in the classifier decision. Very importantly, within our framework the classifier is used as a black-box, and only its evaluation is required.