Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization When Learning from Small Sample

Idan Azuri, Daphna Weinshall
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; GLICO: Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization for Small Sample Learning

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We revisit the long-standing problem of learning from small sample. The generation of new samples from a small training set of labeled points has attracted increased attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel such method called GLICO (Generative Latent Implicit Conditional Optimization). GLICO learns a mapping from the training examples to a latent space and a generator that generates images from vectors in the latent space. Unlike most recent work, which rely on access to large amounts of unlabeled data, GLICO does not require access to any additional data other than the small set of labeled points. In fact, GLICO learns to synthesize completely new samples for every class using as little as 5 or 10 examples per class, with as few as 10 such classes and no data from unknown classes. GLICO is then used to augment the small training set while training a classifier on the small sample. To this end, our proposed method samples the learned latent space using spherical interpolation (slerp) and generates new examples using the trained generator. Empirical results show that the new sampled set is diverse enough, leading to improvement in image classification in comparison with the state of the art when trained on small samples obtained from CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and CUB-200.

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GAN-Based Gaussian Mixture Model Responsibility Learning

Wanming Huang, Yi Da Xu, Shuai Jiang, Xuan Liang, Ian Oppermann
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Posterior Consistency Module for Gaussian Mixture Model

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Mixture Model (MM) is a probabilistic framework allows us to define dataset containing $K$ different modes. When each of the modes is associated with a Gaussian distribution, we refer to it as Gaussian MM or GMM. Given a data point $x$, a GMM may assume the existence of a random index $k \in \{1, \dots , K \}$ identifying which Gaussian the particular data is associated with. In a traditional GMM paradigm, it is straightforward to compute in closed-form, the conditional likelihood $p(x |k, \theta)$ as well as the responsibility probability $p(k|x, \theta)$ describing the distribution weights for each data. Computing the responsibility allows us to retrieve many important statistics of the overall dataset, including the weights of each of the modes/clusters. Modern large data-sets are often containing multiple unlabelled modes, such as paintings dataset may contain several styles; fashion images containing several unlabelled categories. In its raw representation, the Euclidean distances between the data (e.g., images) do not allow them to form mixtures naturally, nor it's feasible to compute responsibility distribution analytically, making GMM unable to apply. In this paper, we utilize the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) framework to achieve a plausible alternative method to compute these probabilities. The key insight is that we compute them at the data's latent space $z$ instead of $x$. However, this process of $z \rightarrow x$ is irreversible under GAN which renders the computation of responsibility $p(k|x, \theta)$ infeasible. Our paper proposed a novel method to solve it by using a so-called Posterior Consistency Module (PCM). PCM acts like a GAN, except its Generator $C_{\text{PCM}}$ does not output the data, but instead it outputs a distribution to approximate $p(k|x, \theta)$. The entire network is trained in an ``end-to-end'' fashion. Trough these techniques, it allows us to model the dataset of very complex structure using GMM and subsequently to discover interesting properties of an unsupervised dataset, including its segments, as well as generating new ``out-distribution" data by smooth linear interpolation across any combinations of the modes in a completely unsupervised manner.

Graph-Based Interpolation of Feature Vectors for Accurate Few-Shot Classification

Yuqing Hu, Vincent Gripon, Stéphane Pateux
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Transductive Learning for Few-Shot Classification using Graph Neural Networks

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In few-shot classification, the aim is to learn models able to discriminate classes using only a small number of labeled examples. In this context, works have proposed to introduce Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) aiming at exploiting the information contained in other samples treated concurrently, what is commonly referred to as the transductive setting in the literature. These GNNs are trained all together with a backbone feature extractor. In this paper, we propose a new method that relies on graphs only to interpolate feature vectors instead, resulting in a transductive learning setting with no additional parameters to train. Our proposed method thus exploits two levels of information: a) transfer features obtained on generic datasets, b) transductive information obtained from other samples to be classified. Using standard few-shot vision classification datasets, we demonstrate its ability to bring significant gains compared to other works.

Local Clustering with Mean Teacher for Semi-Supervised Learning

Zexi Chen, Benjamin Dutton, Bharathkumar Ramachandra, Tianfu Wu, Ranga Raju Vatsavai
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Local Clustering for Semi-supervised Learning

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The Mean Teacher (MT) model of Tarvainen and Valpola has shown favorable performance on several semi-supervised benchmark datasets. MT maintains a teacher model's weights as the exponential moving average of a student model's weights and minimizes the divergence between their probability predictions under diverse perturbations of the inputs. However, MT is known to suffer from confirmation bias, that is, reinforcing incorrect teacher model predictions. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective method called Local Clustering (LC) to mitigate the effect of confirmation bias. In MT, each data point is considered independent of other points during training; however, data points are likely to be close to each other in feature space if they share similar features. Motivated by this, we cluster data points locally by minimizing the pairwise distance between neighboring data points in feature space. Combined with a standard classification cross-entropy objective on labeled data points, the misclassified unlabeled data points are pulled towards high-density regions of their correct class with the help of their neighbors, thus improving model performance. We demonstrate on semi-supervised benchmark datasets SVHN and CIFAR-10 that adding our LC loss to MT yields significant improvements compared to MT and performance comparable to the state of the art in semi-supervised learning.

MetaMix: Improved Meta-Learning with Interpolation-based Consistency Regularization

Yangbin Chen, Yun Ma, Tom Ko, Jianping Wang, Qing Li
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; MetaMix: A Meta-Agnostic Meta-Learning Algorithm for Few-Shot Classification

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Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning (MAML) and its variants are popular few-shot classification methods. They train an initializer across a variety of sampled learning tasks (also known as episodes) such that the initialized model can adapt quickly to new tasks. However, within each episode, current MAML-based algorithms have limitations in forming generalizable decision boundaries using only a few training examples. In this paper, we propose an approach called MetaMix. It generates virtual examples within each episode to regularize the backbone models. MetaMix can be applied in any of the MAML-based algorithms and learn the decision boundaries which are more generalizable to new tasks. Experiments on the mini-ImageNet, CUB, and FC100 datasets show that MetaMix improves the performance of MAML-based algorithms and achieves the state-of-the-art result when applied in Meta-Transfer Learning.

A Joint Representation Learning and Feature Modeling Approach for One-Class Recognition

Pramuditha Perera, Vishal Patel
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Combining Generative Features and One-Class Classification for Effective One-class Recognition

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One-class recognition is traditionally approached either as a representation learning problem or a feature modelling problem. In this work, we argue that both of these approaches have their own limitations; and a more effective solution can be obtained by combining the two. The proposed approach is based on the combination of a generative framework and a one-class classification method. First, we learn generative features using the one-class data with a generative framework. We augment the learned features with the corresponding reconstruction errors to obtain augmented features. Then, we qualitatively identify a suitable feature distribution that reduces the redundancy in the chosen classifier space. Finally, we force the augmented features to take the form of this distribution using an adversarial framework. We test the effectiveness of the proposed method on three one-class classification tasks and obtain state-of-the-art results.

Multi-Modal Deep Clustering: Unsupervised Partitioning of Images

Guy Shiran, Daphna Weinshall
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-Modal Deep Clustering for Unlabeled Images

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The clustering of unlabeled raw images is a daunting task, which has recently been approached with some success by deep learning methods. Here we propose an unsupervised clustering framework, which learns a deep neural network in an end-to-end fashion, providing direct cluster assignments of images without additional processing. Multi-Modal Deep Clustering (MMDC), trains a deep network to align its image embeddings with target points sampled from a Gaussian Mixture Model distribution. The cluster assignments are then determined by mixture component association of image embeddings. Simultaneously, the same deep network is trained to solve an additional self-supervised task. This pushes the network to learn more meaningful image representations and stabilizes the training. Experimental results show that MMDC achieves or exceeds state-of-the-art performance on four challenging benchmarks. On natural image datasets we improve on previous results with significant margins of up to 11% absolute accuracy points, yielding an accuracy of 70% on CIFAR-10 and 61% on STL-10.

Image Representation Learning by Transformation Regression

Xifeng Guo, Jiyuan Liu, Sihang Zhou, En Zhu, Shihao Dong
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Image Representation Learning using Continuous Parameter Prediction

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Self-supervised learning is a thriving research direction since it can relieve the burden of human labeling for machine learning by seeking for supervision from data instead of human annotation. Although demonstrating promising performance in various applications, we observe that the existing methods usually model the auxiliary learning tasks as classification tasks with finite discrete labels, leading to insufficient supervisory signals, which in turn restricts the representation quality. In this paper, to solve the above problem and make full use of the supervision from data, we design a regression model to predict the continuous parameters of a group of transformations, i.e., image rotation, translation, and scaling. Surprisingly, this naive modification stimulates tremendous potential from data and the resulting supervisory signal has largely improved the performance of image representation learning. Extensive experiments on four image datasets, including CIFAR10, CIFAR100, STL10, and SVHN, indicate that our proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised learning methods by a large margin in terms of classification accuracy. Crucially, we find that with our proposed training mechanism as an initialization, the performance of the existing state-of-the-art classification deep architectures can be preferably improved.

AVAE: Adversarial Variational Auto Encoder

Antoine Plumerault, Hervé Le Borgne, Celine Hudelot
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Combining VAE and GAN for Realistic Image Generation

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Among the wide variety of image generative models, two models stand out: Variational Auto Encoders (VAE) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). GANs can produce realistic images, but they suffer from mode collapse and do not provide simple ways to get the latent representation of an image. On the other hand, VAEs do not have these problems, but they often generate images less realistic than GANs. In this article, we explain that this lack of realism is partially due to a common underestimation of the natural image manifold dimensionality. To solve this issue we introduce a new framework that combines VAE and GAN in a novel and complementary way to produce an auto-encoding model that keeps VAEs properties while generating images of GAN-quality. We evaluate our approach both qualitatively and quantitatively on five image datasets.

Revisiting ImprovedGAN with Metric Learning for Semi-Supervised Learning

Jaewoo Park, Yoon Gyo Jung, Andrew Teoh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Improving ImprovedGAN with Metric Learning for Semi-supervised Learning

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Semi-supervised Learning (SSL) is a classical problem where a model needs to solve classification as it is trained on a partially labeled train data. After the introduction of generative adversarial network (GAN) and its success, the model has been modified to be applicable to SSL. ImprovedGAN as a representative model for GAN-based SSL, it showed promising performance on the SSL problem. However, the inner mechanism of this model has been only partially revealed. In this work, we revisit ImprovedGAN with a fresh perspective based on metric learning. In particular, we interpret ImprovedGAN by general pair weighting, a recent framework in metric learning. Based on this interpretation, we derive two theoretical properties of ImprovedGAN: (i) its discriminator learns to make confident predictions over real samples, (ii) the adversarial interaction in ImprovedGAN along with semi-supervision results in cluster separation by reducing intra-class variance and increasing the inter-class variance, thereby improving the model generalization. These theoretical implications are experimentally supported. Motivated by the findings, we propose a variant of ImprovedGAN, called Intensified ImprovedGAN (I2GAN), where its cluster separation characteristic is enhanced by two proposed techniques: (a) the unsupervised discriminator loss is scaled up and (b) the generated batch size is enlarged. As a result, I2GAN produces better class-wise cluster separation and, hence, generalization. Extensive experiments on the widely known benchmark data sets verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, showing that its performance is better than or comparable to other GAN based SSL models.

A Close Look at Deep Learning with Small Data

Lorenzo Brigato, Luca Iocchi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Low-Complex Neural Networks for Small Data Conditions

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In this work, we perform a wide variety of experiments with different Deep Learning architectures in small data conditions. We show that model complexity is a critical factor when only a few samples per class are available. Differently from the literature, we improve the state of the art using low complexity models. We show that standard convolutional neural networks with relatively few parameters are effective in this scenario. In many of our experiments, low complexity models outperform state-of-the-art architectures. Moreover, we propose a novel network that uses an unsupervised loss to regularize its training. Such architecture either improves the results either performs comparably well to low capacity networks. Surprisingly, experiments show that the dynamic data augmentation pipeline is not beneficial in this particular domain. Statically augmenting the dataset might be a promising research direction while dropout maintains its role as a good regularizer.

On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation Improves Uncertainty Calibration

Kanil Patel, William Beluch, Dan Zhang, Michael Pfeiffer, Bin Yang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation for Uncertainty Estimation

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Uncertainty estimates help to identify ambiguous, novel, or anomalous inputs, but the reliable quantification of uncertainty has proven to be challenging for modern deep networks. To improve uncertainty estimation, we propose On-Manifold Adversarial Data Augmentation or OMADA, which specifically attempts to generate challenging examples by following an on-manifold adversarial attack path in the latent space of an autoencoder that closely approximates the decision boundaries between classes. On a variety of datasets and for multiple network architectures, OMADA consistently yields more accurate and better calibrated classifiers than baseline models, and outperforms competing approaches such as Mixup, as well as achieving similar performance to (at times better than) post-processing calibration methods such as temperature scaling. Variants of OMADA can employ different sampling schemes for ambiguous on-manifold examples based on the entropy of their estimated soft labels, which exhibit specific strengths for generalization, calibration of predicted uncertainty, or detection of out-of-distribution inputs.

Local Propagation for Few-Shot Learning

Yann Lifchitz, Yannis Avrithis, Sylvaine Picard
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; Local Propagation for Few-Shot Inference

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The challenge in few-shot learning is that available data is not enough to capture the underlying distribution. To mitigate this, two emerging directions are (a) using local image representations, essentially multiplying the amount of data by a constant factor, and (b) using more unlabeled data, for instance by transductive inference, jointly on a number of queries. In this work, we bring these two ideas together, introducing local propagation. We treat local image features as independent examples, we build a graph on them and we use it to propagate both the features themselves and the labels, known and unknown. Interestingly, since there is a number of features per image, even a single query gives rise to transductive inference. As a result, we provide a universally safe choice for few-shot inference under both non-transductive and transductive settings, improving accuracy over corresponding methods. This is in contrast to existing solutions, where one needs to choose the method depending on the quantity of available data.

Generating Private Data Surrogates for Vision Related Tasks

Ryan Webster, Julien Rabin, Loic Simon, Frederic Jurie
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Networks for Membership Inference Attacks

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With the widespread application of deep networks in industry, membership inference attacks, i.e. the ability to discern training data from a model, become more and more problematic for data privacy. Recent work suggests that generative networks may be robust against membership attacks. In this work, we build on this observation, offering a general-purpose solution to the membership privacy problem. As the primary contribution, we demonstrate how to construct surrogate datasets, using images from GAN generators, labelled with a classifier trained on the private dataset. Next, we show this surrogate data can further be used for a variety of downstream tasks (here classification and regression), while being resistant to membership attacks. We study a variety of different GANs proposed in the literature, concluding that higher quality GANs result in better surrogate data with respect to the task at hand.

Rethinking Deep Active Learning: Using Unlabeled Data at Model Training

Oriane Siméoni, Mateusz Budnik, Yannis Avrithis, Guillaume Gravier
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Unlabeled Data for Active Learning

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Active learning typically focuses on training a model on few labeled examples alone, while unlabeled ones are only used for acquisition. In this work we depart from this setting by using both labeled and unlabeled data during model training across active learning cycles. We do so by using unsupervised feature learning at the beginning of the active learning pipeline and semi-supervised learning at every active learning cycle, on all available data. The former has not been investigated before in active learning, while the study of latter in the context of deep learning is scarce and recent findings are not conclusive with respect to its benefit. Our idea is orthogonal to acquisition strategies by using more data, much like ensemble methods use more models. By systematically evaluating on a number of popular acquisition strategies and datasets, we find that the use of unlabeled data during model training brings a spectacular accuracy improvement in image classification, compared to the differences between acquisition strategies. We thus explore smaller label budgets, even one label per class.

Semi-Supervised Class Incremental Learning

Alexis Lechat, Stéphane Herbin, Frederic Jurie
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; incremental class learning with non-annotated batches

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This paper makes a contribution to the problem of incremental class learning, the principle of which is to sequentially introduce batches of samples annotated with new classes during the learning phase. The main objective is to reduce the drop in classification performance on old classes, a phenomenon commonly called catastrophic forgetting. We propose in this paper a new method which exploits the availability of a large quantity of non-annotated images in addition to the annotated batches. These images are used to regularize the classifier and give the feature space a more stable structure. We demonstrate on several image data sets that our approach is able to improve the global performance of classifiers learned using an incremental learning protocol, even with annotated batches of small size.

A Self-Supervised GAN for Unsupervised Few-Shot Object Recognition

Khoi Nguyen, Sinisa Todorovic
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Few-Shot Object Recognition with a Triplet GAN

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This paper addresses unsupervised few-shot object recognition, where all training images are unlabeled, and test images are divided into queries and a few labeled support images per object class of interest. The training and test images do not share object classes. We extend the vanilla GAN with two loss functions, both aimed at self-supervised learning. The first is a reconstruction loss that enforces the discriminator to reconstruct the probabilistically sampled latent code which has been used for generating the "fake" image. The second is a triplet loss that enforces the discriminator to output image encodings that are closer for more similar images. Evaluation, comparisons, and detailed ablation studies are done in the context of few-shot classification. Our approach significantly outperforms the state of the art on the Mini-Imagenet and Tiered-Imagenet datasets.

IDA-GAN: A Novel Imbalanced Data Augmentation GAN

Hao Yang, Yun Zhou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; IDA-GAN: Generative Adversarial Networks for Imbalanced Data Augmentation

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Class imbalance is a widely existed and challenging problem in real-world applications such as disease diagnosis, fraud detection, network intrusion detection and so on. Due to the scarce of data, it could significantly deteriorate the accuracy of classification. To address this challenge, we propose a novel Imbalanced Data Augmentation Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) named IDA-GAN as an augmentation tool to deal with the imbalanced dataset. This is a great challenge because it is hard to train a GAN model under this situation. We overcome this issue by coupling Variational autoencoder along with GAN training. Specifically, we introduce the Variational autoencoder to learn the majority and minority class distributions in the latent space, and use the generative model to utilize each class distribution for the subsequent GAN training. The generative model learns useful features to generate target minority-class samples. By comparing with the state-of-the-art GAN models, the experimental results demonstrate that our proposed IDA-GAN could generate more diverse minority samples with better qualities, and it consistently benefits the imbalanced classification task in terms of several widely-used evaluation metrics on five benchmark datasets: MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, SVHN, CIFAR-10 and GTRSB.

Augmentation of Small Training Data Using GANs for Enhancing the Performance of Image Classification

Shih-Kai Hung, John Q. Gan
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Network for Image Training Data Augmentation

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It is difficult to achieve high performance without sufficient training data for deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) to learn. Data augmentation plays an important role in improving robustness and preventing overfitting in machine learning for many applications such as image classification. In this paper, a novel method for data augmentation is proposed to solve the problem of machine learning with small training datasets. The proposed method can synthesise similar images with rich diversity from only a single original training sample to increase the number of training data by using generative adversarial networks (GANs). It is expected that the synthesised images possess class-informative features, which may be in the validation or testing data but not in the training data due to that the training dataset is small, and thus they can be effective as augmented training data to improve classification accuracy of DCNNs. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method with a novel GAN framework for image training data augmentation can significantly enhance the classification performance of DCNNs for applications where original training data is limited.

Beyond Cross-Entropy: Learning Highly Separable Feature Distributions for Robust and Accurate Classification

Arslan Ali, Andrea Migliorati, Tiziano Bianchi, Enrico Magli
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.9

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Auto-TLDR; Gaussian class-conditional simplex loss for adversarial robust multiclass classifiers

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Deep learning has shown outstanding performance in several applications including image classification. However, deep classifiers are known to be highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks, in that a minor perturbation of the input can easily lead to an error. Providing robustness to adversarial attacks is a very challenging task especially in problems involving a large number of classes, as it typically comes at the expense of an accuracy decrease. In this work, we propose the Gaussian class-conditional simplex (GCCS) loss: a novel approach for training deep robust multiclass classifiers that provides adversarial robustness while at the same time achieving or even surpassing the classification accuracy of state-of-the-art methods. Differently from other frameworks, the proposed method learns a mapping of the input classes onto target distributions in a latent space such that the classes are linearly separable. Instead of maximizing the likelihood of target labels for individual samples, our objective function pushes the network to produce feature distributions yielding high inter-class separation. The mean values of the distributions are centered on the vertices of a simplex such that each class is at the same distance from every other class. We show that the regularization of the latent space based on our approach yields excellent classification accuracy and inherently provides robustness to multiple adversarial attacks, both targeted and untargeted, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches over challenging datasets.

Pretraining Image Encoders without Reconstruction Via Feature Prediction Loss

Gustav Grund Pihlgren, Fredrik Sandin, Marcus Liwicki
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Feature Prediction Loss for Autoencoder-based Pretraining of Image Encoders

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This work investigates three methods for calculating loss for autoencoder-based pretraining of image encoders: The commonly used reconstruction loss, the more recently introduced deep perceptual similarity loss, and a feature prediction loss proposed here; the latter turning out to be the most efficient choice. Standard auto-encoder pretraining for deep learning tasks is done by comparing the input image and the reconstructed image. Recent work shows that predictions based on embeddings generated by image autoencoders can be improved by training with perceptual loss, i.e., by adding a loss network after the decoding step. So far the autoencoders trained with loss networks implemented an explicit comparison of the original and reconstructed images using the loss network. However, given such a loss network we show that there is no need for the time-consuming task of decoding the entire image. Instead, we propose to decode the features of the loss network, hence the name ``feature prediction loss''. To evaluate this method we perform experiments on three standard publicly available datasets (LunarLander-v2, STL-10, and SVHN) and compare six different procedures for training image encoders (pixel-wise, perceptual similarity, and feature prediction losses; combined with two variations of image and feature encoding/decoding). The embedding-based prediction results show that encoders trained with feature prediction loss is as good or better than those trained with the other two losses. Additionally, the encoder is significantly faster to train using feature prediction loss in comparison to the other losses. The method implementation used in this work is available online: https://github.com/guspih/Perceptual-Autoencoders

Learning with Multiplicative Perturbations

Xiulong Yang, Shihao Ji
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; XAT and xVAT: A Multiplicative Adversarial Training Algorithm for Robust DNN Training

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Adversarial Training (AT) and Virtual Adversarial Training (VAT) are the regularization techniques that train Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with adversarial examples generated by adding small but worst-case perturbations to input examples. In this paper, we propose xAT and xVAT, new adversarial training algorithms that generate multiplicative perturbations to input examples for robust training of DNNs. Such perturbations are much more perceptible and interpretable than their additive counterparts exploited by AT and VAT. Furthermore, the multiplicative perturbations can be generated transductively or inductively, while the standard AT and VAT only support a transductive implementation. We conduct a series of experiments that analyze the behavior of the multiplicative perturbations and demonstrate that xAT and xVAT match or outperform state-of-the-art classification accuracies across multiple established benchmarks while being about 30% faster than their additive counterparts. Our source code can be found at https://github.com/sndnyang/xvat

Data Augmentation Via Mixed Class Interpolation Using Cycle-Consistent Generative Adversarial Networks Applied to Cross-Domain Imagery

Hiroshi Sasaki, Chris G. Willcocks, Toby Breckon
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; C2GMA: A Generative Domain Transfer Model for Non-visible Domain Classification

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Machine learning driven object detection and classification within non-visible imagery has an important role in many fields such as night vision, all-weather surveillance and aviation security. However, such applications often suffer due to the limited quantity and variety of non-visible spectral domain imagery, in contrast to the high data availability of visible-band imagery that readily enables contemporary deep learning driven detection and classification approaches. To address this problem, this paper proposes and evaluates a novel data augmentation approach that leverages the more readily available visible-band imagery via a generative domain transfer model. The model can synthesise large volumes of non-visible domain imagery by image-to-image (I2I) translation from the visible image domain. Furthermore, we show that the generation of interpolated mixed class (non-visible domain) image examples via our novel Conditional CycleGAN Mixup Augmentation (C2GMA) methodology can lead to a significant improvement in the quality of non-visible domain classification tasks that otherwise suffer due to limited data availability. Focusing on classification within the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) domain, our approach is evaluated on a variation of the Statoil/C-CORE Iceberg Classifier Challenge dataset and achieves 75.4% accuracy, demonstrating a significant improvement when compared against traditional data augmentation strategies (Rotation, Mixup, and MixCycleGAN).

On the Evaluation of Generative Adversarial Networks by Discriminative Models

Amirsina Torfi, Mohammadreza Beyki, Edward Alan Fox
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Domain-agnostic GAN Evaluation with Siamese Neural Networks

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Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can accurately model complex multi-dimensional data and generate realistic samples. However, due to their implicit estimation of data distributions, their evaluation is a challenging task. The majority of research efforts associated with tackling this issue were validated by qualitative visual evaluation. Such approaches do not generalize well beyond the image domain. Since many of those evaluation metrics are proposed and bound to the vision domain, they are difficult to apply to other domains. Quantitative measures are necessary to better guide the training and comparison of different GANs models. In this work, we leverage Siamese neural networks to propose a domain-agnostic evaluation metric: (1) with a qualitative evaluation that is consistent with human evaluation, (2) that is robust relative to common GAN issues such as mode dropping and invention, and (3) does not require any pretrained classifier. The empirical results in this paper demonstrate the superiority of this method compared to the popular Inception Score and are competitive with the FID score.

Prior Knowledge about Attributes: Learning a More Effective Potential Space for Zero-Shot Recognition

Chunlai Chai, Yukuan Lou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Attribute Correlation Potential Space Generation for Zero-Shot Learning

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Zero-shot learning (ZSL) aims to recognize unseen classes accurately by learning seen classes and known attributes, but correlations in attributes were ignored by previous study which lead to classification results confused. To solve this problem, we build an Attribute Correlation Potential Space Generation (ACPSG) model which uses a graph convolution network and attribute correlation to generate a more discriminating potential space. Combining potential discrimination space and user-defined attribute space, we can better classify unseen classes. Our approach outperforms some existing state-of-the-art methods on several benchmark datasets, whether it is conventional ZSL or generalized ZSL.

Discriminative Multi-Level Reconstruction under Compact Latent Space for One-Class Novelty Detection

Jaewoo Park, Yoon Gyo Jung, Andrew Teoh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Discriminative Compact AE for One-Class novelty detection and Adversarial Example Detection

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In one-class novelty detection, a model learns solely on the in-class data to single out out-class instances. Autoencoder (AE) variants aim to compactly model the in-class data to reconstruct it exclusively, thus differentiating the in-class from out-class by the reconstruction error. However, compact modeling in an improper way might collapse the latent representations of the in-class data and thus their reconstruction, which would lead to performance deterioration. Moreover, to properly measure the reconstruction error of high-dimensional data, a metric is required that captures high-level semantics of the data. To this end, we propose Discriminative Compact AE (DCAE) that learns both compact and collapse-free latent representations of the in-class data, thereby reconstructing them both finely and exclusively. In DCAE, (a) we force a compact latent space to bijectively represent the in-class data by reconstructing them through internal discriminative layers of generative adversarial nets. (b) Based on the deep encoder's vulnerability to open set risk, out-class instances are encoded into the same compact latent space and reconstructed poorly without sacrificing the quality of in-class data reconstruction. (c) In inference, the reconstruction error is measured by a novel metric that computes the dissimilarity between a query and its reconstruction based on the class semantics captured by the internal discriminator. Extensive experiments on public image datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposed model on both novelty and adversarial example detection, delivering state-of-the-art performance.

Combining GANs and AutoEncoders for Efficient Anomaly Detection

Fabio Carrara, Giuseppe Amato, Luca Brombin, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.11

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Auto-TLDR; CBIGAN: Anomaly Detection in Images with Consistency Constrained BiGAN

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In this work, we propose CBiGAN --- a novel method for anomaly detection in images, where a consistency constraint is introduced as a regularization term in both the encoder and decoder of a BiGAN. Our model exhibits fairly good modeling power and reconstruction consistency capability. We evaluate the proposed method on MVTec AD --- a real-world benchmark for unsupervised anomaly detection on high-resolution images --- and compare against standard baselines and state-of-the-art approaches. Experiments show that the proposed method improves the performance of BiGAN formulations by a large margin and performs comparably to expensive state-of-the-art iterative methods while reducing the computational cost. We also observe that our model is particularly effective in texture-type anomaly detection, as it sets a new state of the art in this category. The code will be publicly released.

High Resolution Face Age Editing

Xu Yao, Gilles Puy, Alasdair Newson, Yann Gousseau, Pierre Hellier
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T5.2

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Auto-TLDR; An Encoder-Decoder Architecture for Face Age editing on High Resolution Images

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Face age editing has become a crucial task in film post-production, and is also becoming popular for general purpose photography. Recently, adversarial training has produced some of the most visually impressive results for image manipulation, including the face aging/de-aging task. In spite of considerable progress, current methods often present visual artifacts and can only deal with low-resolution images. In order to achieve aging/de-aging with the high quality and robustness necessary for wider use, these problems need to be addressed. This is the goal of the present work. We present an encoder-decoder architecture for face age editing. The core idea of our network is to encode a face image to age-invariant features, and learn a modulation vector corresponding to a target age. We then combine these two elements to produce a realistic image of the person with the desired target age. Our architecture is greatly simplified with respect to other approaches, and allows for fine-grained age editing on high resolution images in a single unified model. Source codes are available at https://github.com/InterDigitalInc/HRFAE.

Towards Robust Learning with Different Label Noise Distributions

Diego Ortego, Eric Arazo, Paul Albert, Noel E O'Connor, Kevin Mcguinness
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling with Semi-supervised Learning

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Noisy labels are an unavoidable consequence of labeling processes and detecting them is an important step towards preventing performance degradations in Convolutional Neural Networks. Discarding noisy labels avoids a harmful memorization, while the associated image content can still be exploited in a semi-supervised learning (SSL) setup. Clean samples are usually identified using the small loss trick, i.e. they exhibit a low loss. However, we show that different noise distributions make the application of this trick less straightforward and propose to continuously relabel all images to reveal a discriminative loss against multiple distributions. SSL is then applied twice, once to improve the clean-noisy detection and again for training the final model. We design an experimental setup based on ImageNet32/64 for better understanding the consequences of representation learning with differing label noise distributions and find that non-uniform out-of-distribution noise better resembles real-world noise and that in most cases intermediate features are not affected by label noise corruption. Experiments in CIFAR-10/100, ImageNet32/64 and WebVision (real-world noise) demonstrate that the proposed label noise Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling (DRPL) approach gives substantial improvements over recent state-of-the-art. Code will be made available.

Robust Pedestrian Detection in Thermal Imagery Using Synthesized Images

My Kieu, Lorenzo Berlincioni, Leonardo Galteri, Marco Bertini, Andrew Bagdanov, Alberto Del Bimbo
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.6

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Auto-TLDR; Improving Pedestrian Detection in the thermal domain using Generative Adversarial Network

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In this paper we propose a method for improving pedestrian detection in the thermal domain using two stages: first, a generative data augmentation approach is used, then a domain adaptation method using generated data adapts an RGB pedestrian detector. Our model, based on the Least-Squares Generative Adversarial Network, is trained to synthesize realistic thermal versions of input RGB images which are then used to augment the limited amount of labeled thermal pedestrian images available for training. We apply our generative data augmentation strategy in order to adapt a pretrained YOLOv3 pedestrian detector to detection in the thermal-only domain. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach: using less than 50% of available real thermal training data, and relying on synthesized data generated by our model in the domain adaptation phase, our detector achieves state-of-the-art results on the KAIST Multispectral Pedestrian Detection Benchmark; even if more real thermal data is available adding GAN generated images to the training data results in improved performance, thus showing that these images act as an effective form of data augmentation. To the best of our knowledge, our detector achieves the best single-modality detection results on KAIST with respect to the state-of-the-art.

Supervised Domain Adaptation Using Graph Embedding

Lukas Hedegaard, Omar Ali Sheikh-Omar, Alexandros Iosifidis
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Domain Adaptation from the Perspective of Multi-view Graph Embedding and Dimensionality Reduction

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Getting deep convolutional neural networks to perform well requires a large amount of training data. When the available labelled data is small, it is often beneficial to use transfer learning to leverage a related larger dataset (source) in order to improve the performance on the small dataset (target). Among the transfer learning approaches, domain adaptation methods assume that distributions between the two domains are shifted and attempt to realign them. In this paper, we consider the domain adaptation problem from the perspective of multi-view graph embedding and dimensionality reduction. Instead of solving the generalised eigenvalue problem to perform the embedding, we formulate the graph-preserving criterion as loss in the neural network and learn a domain-invariant feature transformation in an end-to-end fashion. We show that the proposed approach leads to a powerful Domain Adaptation framework which generalises the prior methods CCSA and d-SNE, and enables simple and effective loss designs; an LDA-inspired instantiation of the framework leads to performance on par with the state-of-the-art on the most widely used Domain Adaptation benchmarks, Office31 and MNIST to USPS datasets.

Adversarially Constrained Interpolation for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Mohamed Azzam, Aurele Tohokantche Gnanha, Hau-San Wong, Si Wu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Domain Mixup Strategy

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We address the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) which aims at adapting models trained on a labeled domain to a completely unlabeled domain. One way to achieve this goal is to learn a domain-invariant representation. However, this approach is subject to two challenges: samples from two domains are insufficient to guarantee domain-invariance at most part of the latent space, and neighboring samples from the target domain may not belong to the same class on the low-dimensional manifold. To mitigate these shortcomings, we propose two strategies. First, we incorporate a domain mixup strategy in domain adversarial learning model by linearly interpolating between the source and target domain samples. This allows the latent space to be continuous and yields an improvement of the domain matching. Second, the domain discriminator is regularized via judging the relative difference between both domains for the input mixup features, which speeds up the domain matching. Experiment results show that our proposed model achieves a superior performance on different tasks under various domain shifts and data complexity.

Variational Deep Embedding Clustering by Augmented Mutual Information Maximization

Qiang Ji, Yanfeng Sun, Yongli Hu, Baocai Yin
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Clustering by Augmented Mutual Information maximization for Deep Embedding

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Clustering is a crucial but challenging task in pattern analysis and machine learning. Recent many deep clustering methods combining representation learning with cluster techniques emerged. These deep clustering methods mainly focus on the correlation among samples and ignore the relationship between samples and their representations. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end clustering framework, namely variational deep embedding clustering by augmented mutual information maximization (VCAMI). From the perspective of VAE, we prove that minimizing reconstruction loss is equivalent to maximizing the mutual information of the input and its latent representation. This provides a theoretical guarantee for us to directly maximize the mutual information instead of minimizing reconstruction loss. Therefore we proposed the augmented mutual information which highlights the uniqueness of the representations while discovering invariant information among similar samples. Extensive experiments on several challenging image datasets show that the VCAMI achieves good performance. we achieve state-of-the-art results for clustering on MNIST (99.5%) and CIFAR-10 (65.4%) to the best of our knowledge.

Few-Shot Few-Shot Learning and the Role of Spatial Attention

Yann Lifchitz, Yannis Avrithis, Sylvaine Picard
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Few-shot Learning with Pre-trained Classifier on Large-Scale Datasets

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Few-shot learning is often motivated by the ability of humans to learn new tasks from few examples. However, standard few-shot classification benchmarks assume that the representation is learned on a limited amount of base class data, ignoring the amount of prior knowledge that a human may have accumulated before learning new tasks. At the same time, even if a powerful representation is available, it may happen in some domain that base class data are limited or non-existent. This motivates us to study a problem where the representation is obtained from a classifier pre-trained on a large-scale dataset of a different domain, assuming no access to its training process, while the base class data are limited to few examples per class and their role is to adapt the representation to the domain at hand rather than learn from scratch. We adapt the representation in two stages, namely on the few base class data if available and on the even fewer data of new tasks. In doing so, we obtain from the pre-trained classifier a spatial attention map that allows focusing on objects and suppressing background clutter. This is important in the new problem, because when base class data are few, the network cannot learn where to focus implicitly. We also show that a pre-trained network may be easily adapted to novel classes, without meta-learning.

Rethinking Domain Generalization Baselines

Francesco Cappio Borlino, Antonio D'Innocente, Tatiana Tommasi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Style Transfer Data Augmentation for Domain Generalization

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Despite being very powerful in standard learning settings, deep learning models can be extremely brittle when deployed in scenarios different from those on which they were trained. Domain generalization methods investigate this problem and data augmentation strategies have shown to be helpful tools to increase data variability, supporting model robustness across domains. In our work we focus on style transfer data augmentation and we present how it can be implemented with a simple and inexpensive strategy to improve generalization. Moreover, we analyze the behavior of current state of the art domain generalization methods when integrated with this augmentation solution: our thorough experimental evaluation shows that their original effect almost always disappears with respect to the augmented baseline. This issue open new scenarios for domain generalization research, highlighting the need of novel methods properly able to take advantage of the introduced data variability.

Enlarging Discriminative Power by Adding an Extra Class in Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Hai Tran, Sumyeong Ahn, Taeyoung Lee, Yung Yi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation using Artificial Classes

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We study the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation that aims at obtaining a prediction model for the target domain using labeled data from the source domain and unlabeled data from the target domain. There exists an array of recent research based on the idea of extracting features that are not only invariant for both domains but also provide high discriminative power for the target domain. In this paper, we propose an idea of improving the discriminativeness: Adding an extra artificial class and training the model on the given data together with the GAN-generated samples of the new class. The trained model based on the new class samples is capable of extracting the features that are more discriminative by repositioning data of current classes in the target domain and therefore increasing the distances among the target clusters in the feature space. Our idea is highly generic so that it is compatible with many existing methods such as DANN, VADA, and DIRT-T. We conduct various experiments for the standard data commonly used for the evaluation of unsupervised domain adaptations and demonstrate that our algorithm achieves the SOTA performance for many scenarios.

Separation of Aleatoric and Epistemic Uncertainty in Deterministic Deep Neural Networks

Denis Huseljic, Bernhard Sick, Marek Herde, Daniel Kottke
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; AE-DNN: Modeling Uncertainty in Deep Neural Networks

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Despite the success of deep neural networks (DNN) in many applications, their ability to model uncertainty is still significantly limited. For example, in safety-critical applications such as autonomous driving, it is crucial to obtain a prediction that reflects different types of uncertainty to address life-threatening situations appropriately. In such cases, it is essential to be aware of the risk (i.e., aleatoric uncertainty) and the reliability (i.e., epistemic uncertainty) that comes with a prediction. We present AE-DNN, a model allowing the separation of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty while maintaining a proper generalization capability. AE-DNN is based on deterministic DNN, which can determine the respective uncertainty measures in a single forward pass. In analyses with synthetic and image data, we show that our method improves the modeling of epistemic uncertainty while providing an intuitively understandable separation of risk and reliability.

Few-Shot Learning Based on Metric Learning Using Class Augmentation

Susumu Matsumi, Keiichi Yamada
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Metric Learning for Few-shot Learning

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Few-shot learning is a machine learning problem in which new categories are learned from only a few samples. One approach for few-shot learning is metric learning, which learns an embedding space in which learning is efficient for few-shot samples. In this paper, we focus on metric learning and demonstrate that the number of classes in the training data used for metric learning has a greater impact on the accuracy of few-shot learning than the number of samples per class. We propose a few-shot learning approach based on metric learning in which the number of classes in the training data for performing metric learning is increased. The number of classes is augmented by synthesizing samples of imaginary classes at a feature level from the original training data. The proposed method is evaluated on the miniImageNet dataset using the nearest neighbor method or a support vector machine as the classifier, and the effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated.

Learning Disentangled Representations for Identity Preserving Surveillance Face Camouflage

Jingzhi Li, Lutong Han, Hua Zhang, Xiaoguang Han, Jingguo Ge, Xiaochu Cao
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.4

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Auto-TLDR; Individual Face Privacy under Surveillance Scenario with Multi-task Loss Function

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In this paper, we focus on protecting the person face privacy under the surveillance scenarios, whose goal is to change the visual appearances of faces while keep them to be recognizable by current face recognition systems. This is a challenging problem as that we should retain the most important structures of captured facial images, while alter the salient facial regions to protect personal privacy. To address this problem, we introduce a novel individual face protection model, which can camouflage the face appearance from the perspective of human visual perception and preserve the identity features of faces used for face authentication. To that end, we develop an encoder-decoder network architecture that can separately disentangle the person feature representation into an appearance code and an identity code. Specifically, we first randomly divide the face image into two groups, the source set and the target set, where the source set is used to extract the identity code and the target set provides the appearance code. Then, we recombine the identity and appearance codes to synthesize a new face, which has the same identity with the source subject. Finally, the synthesized faces are used to replace the original face to protect the privacy of individual. Furthermore, our model is trained end-to-end with a multi-task loss function, which can better preserve the identity and stabilize the training loss. Experiments conducted on Cross-Age Celebrity dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our model and validate our superiority in terms of visual quality and scalability.

Coherence and Identity Learning for Arbitrary-Length Face Video Generation

Shuquan Ye, Chu Han, Jiaying Lin, Guoqiang Han, Shengfeng He
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Face Video Synthesis Using Identity-Aware GAN and Face Coherence Network

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Face synthesis is an interesting yet challenging task in computer vision. It is even much harder to generate a portrait video than a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel video generation framework for synthesizing arbitrary-length face videos without any face exemplar or landmark. To overcome the synthesis ambiguity of face video, we propose a divide-and-conquer strategy to separately address the video face synthesis problem from two aspects, face identity synthesis and rearrangement. To this end, we design a cascaded network which contains three components, Identity-aware GAN (IA-GAN), Face Coherence Network, and Interpolation Network. IA-GAN is proposed to synthesize photorealistic faces with the same identity from a set of noises. Face Coherence Network is designed to re-arrange the faces generated by IA-GAN while keeping the inter-frame coherence. Interpolation Network is introduced to eliminate the discontinuity between two adjacent frames and improve the smoothness of the face video. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed network is able to generate face video with high visual quality while preserving the identity. Statistics show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art unconditional face video generative models in multiple challenging datasets.

Learning Low-Shot Generative Networks for Cross-Domain Data

Hsuan-Kai Kao, Cheng-Che Lee, Wei-Chen Chiu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Learning Generators for Cross-Domain Data under Low-Shot Learning

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We tackle a novel problem of learning generators for cross-domain data under a specific scenario of low-shot learning. Basically, given a source domain with sufficient amount of training data, we aim to transfer the knowledge of its generative process to another target domain, which not only has few data samples but also contains the domain shift with respect to the source domain. This problem has great potential in practical use and is different from the well-known image translation task, as the target-domain data can be generated without requiring any source-domain ones and the large data consumption for learning target-domain generator can be alleviated. Built upon a cross-domain dataset where (1) each of the low shots in the target domain has its correspondence in the source and (2) these two domains share the similar content information but different appearance, two approaches are proposed: a Latent-Disentanglement-Orientated model (LaDo) and a Generative-Hierarchy-Oriented (GenHo) model. Our LaDo and GenHo approaches address the problem from different perspectives, where the former relies on learning the disentangled representation composed of domain-invariant content features and domain-specific appearance ones; while the later decomposes the generative process of a generator into two parts for synthesizing the content and appearance sequentially. We perform extensive experiments under various settings of cross-domain data and show the efficacy of our models for generating target-domain data with the abundant content variance as in the source domain, which lead to the favourable performance in comparison to several baselines.

SAGE: Sequential Attribute Generator for Analyzing Glioblastomas Using Limited Dataset

Padmaja Jonnalagedda, Brent Weinberg, Jason Allen, Taejin Min, Shiv Bhanu, Bir Bhanu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; SAGE: Generative Adversarial Networks for Imaging Biomarker Detection and Prediction

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While deep learning approaches have shown remarkable performance in many imaging tasks, most of these methods rely on availability of large quantities of data. Medical image data, however, is scarce and fragmented. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently been very effective in handling such datasets by generating more data. If the datasets are very small, however, GANs cannot learn the data distribution properly, resulting in less diverse or low-quality results. One such limited dataset is that for the concurrent gain of 19/20 chromosomes (19/20 co-gain), a mutation with positive prognostic value in Glioblastomas (GBM). In this paper, we detect imaging biomarkers for the mutation to streamline the extensive and invasive prognosis pipeline. Since this mutation is relatively rare, i.e. small dataset, we propose a novel generative framework – the Sequential Attribute GEnerator (SAGE), that generates detailed tumor imaging features while learning from a limited dataset. Experiments show that not only does SAGE generate high quality tumors when compared to standard Deep Convolutional GAN (DC-GAN) and Wasserstein GAN with Gradient Penalty (WGAN-GP), it also captures the imaging biomarkers accurately.

Semi-Supervised Generative Adversarial Networks with a Pair of Complementary Generators for Retinopathy Screening

Yingpeng Xie, Qiwei Wan, Hai Xie, En-Leng Tan, Yanwu Xu, Baiying Lei
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Networks for Retinopathy Diagnosis via Fundus Images

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Several typical types of retinopathy are major causes of blindness. However, early detection of retinopathy is quite not easy since few symptoms are observable in the early stage, attributing to the development of non-mydriatic retinal camera. These camera produces high-resolution retinal fundus images provide the possibility of Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) via deep learning to assist diagnosing retinopathy. Deep learning algorithms usually rely on a great number of labelled images which are expensive and time-consuming to obtain in the medical imaging area. Moreover, the random distribution of various lesions which often vary greatly in size also brings significant challenges to learn discriminative information from high-resolution fundus image. In this paper, we present generative adversarial networks simultaneously equipped with "good" generator and "bad" generator (GBGANs) to make up for the incomplete data distribution provided by limited fundus images. To improve the generative feasibility of generator, we introduce into pre-trained feature extractor to acquire condensed feature for each fundus image in advance. Experimental results on integrated three public iChallenge datasets show that the proposed GBGANs could fully utilize the available fundus images to identify retinopathy with little label cost.

Building Computationally Efficient and Well-Generalizing Person Re-Identification Models with Metric Learning

Vladislav Sovrasov, Dmitry Sidnev
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Cross-Domain Generalization in Person Re-identification using Omni-Scale Network

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This work considers the problem of domain shift in person re-identification.Being trained on one dataset, a re-identification model usually performs much worse on unseen data. Partially this gap is caused by the relatively small scale of person re-identification datasets (compared to face recognition ones, for instance), but it is also related to training objectives. We propose to use the metric learning objective, namely AM-Softmax loss, and some additional training practices to build well-generalizing, yet, computationally efficient models. We use recently proposed Omni-Scale Network (OSNet) architecture combined with several training tricks and architecture adjustments to obtain state-of-the art results in cross-domain generalization problem on a large-scale MSMT17 dataset in three setups: MSMT17-all->DukeMTMC, MSMT17-train->Market1501 and MSMT17-all->Market1501.

Making Every Label Count: Handling Semantic Imprecision by Integrating Domain Knowledge

Clemens-Alexander Brust, Björn Barz, Joachim Denzler
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Class Hierarchies for Imprecise Label Learning and Annotation eXtrapolation

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Noisy data, crawled from the web or supplied by volunteers such as Mechanical Turkers or citizen scientists, is considered an alternative to professionally labeled data. There has been research focused on mitigating the effects of label noise. It is typically modeled as inaccuracy, where the correct label is replaced by an incorrect label from the same set. We consider an additional dimension of label noise: imprecision. For example, a non-breeding snow bunting is labeled as a bird. This label is correct, but not as precise as the task requires. Standard softmax classifiers cannot learn from such a weak label because they consider all classes mutually exclusive, which non-breeding snow bunting and bird are not. We propose CHILLAX (Class Hierarchies for Imprecise Label Learning and Annotation eXtrapolation), a method based on hierarchical classification, to fully utilize labels of any precision. Experiments on noisy variants of NABirds and ILSVRC2012 show that our method outperforms strong baselines by as much as 16.4 percentage points, and the current state of the art by up to 3.9 percentage points.

GAP: Quantifying the Generative Adversarial Set and Class Feature Applicability of Deep Neural Networks

Edward Collier, Supratik Mukhopadhyay
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Approximating Adversarial Learning in Deep Neural Networks Using Set and Class Adversaries

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Recent work in deep neural networks has sought to characterize the nature in which a network learns features and how applicable learnt features are to various problem sets. Deep neural network applicability can be split into three sub-problems; set applicability, class applicability, and instance applicability. In this work we seek to quantify the applicability of features learned during adversarial training, focusing specifically on set and class applicability. We apply techniques for measuring applicability to both generators and discriminators trained on various data sets to quantify applicability and better observe how both a generator and a discriminator, and generative models as a whole, learn features during adversarial training.

GuCNet: A Guided Clustering-Based Network for Improved Classification

Ushasi Chaudhuri, Syomantak Chaudhuri, Subhasis Chaudhuri
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Semantic Classification of Challenging Dataset Using Guide Datasets

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We deal with the problem of semantic classification of challenging and highly-cluttered dataset. We present a novel, and yet a very simple classification technique by leveraging the ease of classifiability of any existing well separable dataset for guidance. Since the guide dataset which may or may not have any semantic relationship with the experimental dataset, forms well separable clusters in the feature set, the proposed network tries to embed class-wise features of the challenging dataset to those distinct clusters of the guide set, making them more separable. Depending on the availability, we propose two types of guide sets: one using texture (image) guides and another using prototype vectors representing cluster centers. Experimental results obtained on the challenging benchmark RSSCN, LSUN, and TU-Berlin datasets establish the efficacy of the proposed method as we outperform the existing state-of-the-art techniques by a considerable margin.

Rethinking of Deep Models Parameters with Respect to Data Distribution

Shitala Prasad, Dongyun Lin, Yiqun Li, Sheng Dong, Zaw Min Oo
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; A progressive stepwise training strategy for deep neural networks

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The performance of deep learning models are driven by various parameters but to tune all of them every time, for every dataset, is a heuristic practice. In this paper, unlike the common practice of decaying the learning rate, we propose a step-wise training strategy where the learning rate and the batch size are tuned based on the dataset size. Here, the given dataset size is progressively increased during the training to boost the network performance without saturating the learning curve, after certain epochs. We conducted extensive experiments on multiple networks and datasets to validate the proposed training strategy. The experimental results proves our hypothesis that the learning rate, the batch size and the data size are interrelated and can improve the network accuracy if an optimal progressive stepwise training strategy is applied. The proposed strategy also the overall training computational cost is reduced.

Semantics-Guided Representation Learning with Applications to Visual Synthesis

Jia-Wei Yan, Ci-Siang Lin, Fu-En Yang, Yu-Jhe Li, Yu-Chiang Frank Wang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Learning Interpretable and Interpolatable Latent Representations for Visual Synthesis

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Learning interpretable and interpolatable latent representations has been an emerging research direction, allowing researchers to understand and utilize the derived latent space for further applications such as visual synthesis or recognition. While most existing approaches derive an interpolatable latent space and induces smooth transition in image appearance, it is still not clear how to observe desirable representations which would contain semantic information of interest. In this paper, we aim to learn meaningful representations and simultaneously perform semantic-oriented and visually-smooth interpolation. To this end, we propose an angular triplet-neighbor loss (ATNL) that enables learning a latent representation whose distribution matches the semantic information of interest. With the latent space guided by ATNL, we further utilize spherical semantic interpolation for generating semantic warping of images, allowing synthesis of desirable visual data. Experiments on MNIST and CMU Multi-PIE datasets qualitatively and quantitatively verify the effectiveness of our method.

Local Facial Attribute Transfer through Inpainting

Ricard Durall, Franz-Josef Pfreundt, Janis Keuper
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Attribute Transfer Inpainting Generative Adversarial Network

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The term attribute transfer refers to the tasks of altering images in such a way, that the semantic interpretation of a given input image is shifted towards an intended direction, which is quantified by semantic attributes. Prominent example applications are photo realistic changes of facial features and expressions, like changing the hair color, adding a smile, enlarging the nose or altering the entire context of a scene, like transforming a summer landscape into a winter panorama. Recent advances in attribute transfer are mostly based on generative deep neural networks, using various techniques to manipulate images in the latent space of the generator. In this paper, we present a novel method for the common sub-task of local attribute transfers, where only parts of a face have to be altered in order to achieve semantic changes (e.g. removing a mustache). In contrast to previous methods, where such local changes have been implemented by generating new (global) images, we propose to formulate local attribute transfers as an inpainting problem. Removing and regenerating only parts of images, our Attribute Transfer Inpainting Generative Adversarial Network (ATI-GAN) is able to utilize local context information to focus on the attributes while keeping the background unmodified resulting in visually sound results.