The Aleatoric Uncertainty Estimation Using a Separate Formulation with Virtual Residuals

Takumi Kawashima, Qing Yu, Akari Asai, Daiki Ikami, Kiyoharu Aizawa
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Aleatoric Uncertainty Estimation in Regression Problems

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We propose a new optimization framework for aleatoric uncertainty estimation in regression problems. Existing methods can quantify the error in the target estimation, but they tend to underestimate it. To obtain the predictive uncertainty inherent in an observation, we propose a new separable formulation for the estimation of a signal and of its uncertainty, avoiding the effect of overfitting. By decoupling target estimation and uncertainty estimation, we also control the balance between signal estimation and uncertainty estimation. We conduct three types of experiments: regression with simulation data, age estimation, and depth estimation. We demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms a state-of-the-art technique for signal and uncertainty estimation.

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Extending Single Beam Lidar to Full Resolution by Fusing with Single Image Depth Estimation

Yawen Lu, Yuxing Wang, Devarth Parikh, Guoyu Lu
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T5.4

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised LIDAR for Low-Cost Depth Estimation

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Depth estimation is playing an important role in indoor and outdoor scene understanding, autonomous driving, augmented reality and many other tasks. Vehicles and robotics are able to use active illumination sensors such as LIDAR to receive high precision depth estimation. However, high-resolution Lidars are usually too expensive, which limits its massive production on various applications. Though single beam LIDAR enjoys the benefits of low cost, one beam depth sensing is not usually sufficient to perceive the surrounding environment in many scenarios. In this paper, we propose a learning-based framework to explore to replicate similar or even higher performance as costly LIDARs with our designed self-supervised network and a low-cost single-beam LIDAR. After the accurate calibration with a visible camera, the single beam LIDAR can adjust the scale uncertainty of the depth map estimated by the visible camera. The adjusted depth map enjoys the benefits of high resolution and sensing accuracy as high beam LIDAR and maintains low-cost as single beam LIDAR. Thus we can achieve similar sensing effect of high beam LIDAR with more than a 50-100 times cheaper price (e.g., \$80000 Velodyne HDL-64E LIDAR v.s. \$1000 SICK TIM-781 2D LIDAR and normal camera). The proposed approach is verified on our collected dataset and public dataset with superior depth-sensing performance.

Real-Time Monocular Depth Estimation with Extremely Light-Weight Neural Network

Mian Jhong Chiu, Wei-Chen Chiu, Hua-Tsung Chen, Jen-Hui Chuang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.7

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Auto-TLDR; Real-Time Light-Weight Depth Prediction for Obstacle Avoidance and Environment Sensing with Deep Learning-based CNN

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Obstacle avoidance and environment sensing are crucial applications in autonomous driving and robotics. Among all types of sensors, RGB camera is widely used in these applications as it can offer rich visual contents with relatively low-cost, and using a single image to perform depth estimation has become one of the main focuses in resent research works. However, prior works usually rely on highly complicated computation and power-consuming GPU to achieve such task; therefore, we focus on developing a real-time light-weight system for depth prediction in this paper. Based on the well-known encoder-decoder architecture, we propose a supervised learning-based CNN with detachable decoders that produce depth predictions with different scales. We also formulate a novel log-depth loss function that computes the difference of predicted depth map and ground truth depth map in log space, so as to increase the prediction accuracy for nearby locations. To train our model efficiently, we generate depth map and semantic segmentation with complex teacher models. Via a series of ablation studies and experiments, it is validated that our model can efficiently performs real-time depth prediction with only 0.32M parameters, with the best trained model outperforms previous works on KITTI dataset for various evaluation matrices.

A Flatter Loss for Bias Mitigation in Cross-Dataset Facial Age Estimation

Ali Akbari, Muhammad Awais, Zhenhua Feng, Ammarah Farooq, Josef Kittler
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T2.3

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Auto-TLDR; Cross-dataset Age Estimation for Neural Network Training

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Existing studies in facial age estimation have mostly focused on intra-dataset protocols that assume training and test images captured under similar conditions. However, this is rarely valid in practical applications, where training and test sets usually have different characteristics. In this paper, we advocate a cross-dataset protocol for age estimation benchmarking. In order to improve the cross-dataset age estimation performance, we mitigate the inherent bias caused by the learning algorithm. To this end, we propose a novel loss function that is more effective for neural network training. The relative smoothness of the proposed loss function is its advantage with regards to the optimisation process performed by stochastic gradient decent. Its lower gradient, compared with existing loss functions, facilitates the discovery of and convergence to a better optimum, and consequently a better generalisation. The cross-dataset experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and generalisation capability.

Partially Supervised Multi-Task Network for Single-View Dietary Assessment

Ya Lu, Thomai Stathopoulou, Stavroula Mougiakakou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Food Volume Estimation from a Single Food Image via Geometric Understanding and Semantic Prediction

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Food volume estimation is an essential step in the pipeline of dietary assessment and demands the precise depth estimation of the food surface and table plane. Existing methods based on computer vision require either multi-image input or additional depth maps, reducing convenience of implementation and practical significance. Despite the recent advances in unsupervised depth estimation from a single image, the achieved performance in the case of large texture-less areas needs to be improved. In this paper, we propose a network architecture that jointly performs geometric understanding (i.e., depth prediction and 3D plane estimation) and semantic prediction on a single food image, enabling a robust and accurate food volume estimation regardless of the texture characteristics of the target plane. For the training of the network, only monocular videos with semantic ground truth are required, while the depth map and 3D plane ground truth are no longer needed. Experimental results on two separate food image databases demonstrate that our method performs robustly on texture-less scenarios and is superior to unsupervised networks and structure from motion based approaches, while it achieves comparable performance to fully-supervised methods.

Deep Transformation Models: Tackling Complex Regression Problems with Neural Network Based Transformation Models

Beate Sick, Torsten Hothorn, Oliver Dürr
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; A Deep Transformation Model for Probabilistic Regression

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We present a deep transformation model for probabilistic regression. Deep learning is known for outstandingly accurate predictions on complex data but in regression tasks it is predominantly used to just predict a single number. This ignores the non-deterministic character of most tasks. Especially if crucial decisions are based on the predictions, like in medical applications, it is essential to quantify the prediction uncertainty. The presented deep learning transformation model estimates the whole conditional probability distribution, which is the most thorough way to capture uncertainty about the outcome. We combine ideas from a statistical transformation model (most likely transformation) with recent transformation models from deep learning (normalizing flows) to predict complex outcome distributions. The core of the method is a parameterized transformation function which can be trained with the usual maximum likelihood framework using gradient descent. The method can be combined with existing deep learning architectures. For small machine learning benchmark datasets, we report state of the art performance for most dataset and partly even outperform it. Our method works for complex input data, which we demonstrate by employing a CNN architecture on image data.

DEN: Disentangling and Exchanging Network for Depth Completion

You-Feng Wu, Vu-Hoang Tran, Ting-Wei Chang, Wei-Chen Chiu, Ching-Chun Huang
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Disentangling and Exchanging Network for Depth Completion

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In this paper, we tackle the depth completion problem. Conventional depth sensors usually produce incomplete depth maps due to the property of surface reflection, especially for the window areas, metal surfaces, and object boundaries. However, we observe that the corresponding RGB images are still dense and preserve all of the useful structural information. This brings us to the question of whether we can borrow this structural information from RGB images to inpaint the corresponding incomplete depth maps. In this paper, we answer that question by proposing a Disentangling and Exchanging Network (DEN) for depth completion. The network is designed based on an assumption that after suitable feature disentanglement, RGB images and depth maps share a common domain for representing structural information. So we firstly disentangle both RGB and depth images into domain-invariant content parts, which contain structural information, and domain-specific style parts. Then, by exchanging the complete structural information extracted from RGB image with incomplete information extracted from depth map, we can generate the complete version of depth map. Furthermore, to address the mixed-depth problem, a newly proposed depth representation is applied. By modeling depth estimation as a classification problem coupled with coefficient estimation, blurry edges are enhanced in the depth map. At last, we have implemented ablation experiments to verify the effectiveness of our proposed DEN model. The results also demonstrate the superiority of DEN over some state-of-the-art approaches.

Learning Natural Thresholds for Image Ranking

Somayeh Keshavarz, Quang Nhat Tran, Richard Souvenir
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; Image Representation Learning and Label Discretization for Natural Image Ranking

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For image ranking tasks with naturally continuous output, such as age and scenicness estimation, it is common to discretize the label range and apply methods from (ordered) classification analysis. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach for simultaneous representation learning and label discretization. Compared to arbitrarily selecting thresholds, we seek to learn thresholds and image representations by minimizing a novel loss function in an end-to-end model. We demonstrate our combined approach on a variety of image ranking tasks and demonstrate that it outperforms task-specific methods. Additionally, our learned partitioning scheme can be transferred to improve methods that rely on discretization.

Deep Ordinal Regression with Label Diversity

Axel Berg, Magnus Oskarsson, Mark Oconnor
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; Discrete Regression via Classification for Neural Network Learning

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Regression via classification (RvC) is a common method used for regression problems in deep learning, where the target variable belongs to a set of continuous values. By discretizing the target into a set of non-overlapping classes, it has been shown that training a classifier can improve neural network accuracy compared to using a standard regression approach. However, it is not clear how the set of discrete classes should be chosen and how it affects the overall solution. In this work, we propose that using several discrete data representations simultaneously can improve neural network learning compared to a single representation. Our approach is end-to-end differentiable and can be added as a simple extension to conventional learning methods, such as deep neural networks. We test our method on three challenging tasks and show that our method reduces the prediction error compared to a baseline RvC approach while maintaining a similar model complexity.

Separation of Aleatoric and Epistemic Uncertainty in Deterministic Deep Neural Networks

Denis Huseljic, Bernhard Sick, Marek Herde, Daniel Kottke
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; AE-DNN: Modeling Uncertainty in Deep Neural Networks

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Despite the success of deep neural networks (DNN) in many applications, their ability to model uncertainty is still significantly limited. For example, in safety-critical applications such as autonomous driving, it is crucial to obtain a prediction that reflects different types of uncertainty to address life-threatening situations appropriately. In such cases, it is essential to be aware of the risk (i.e., aleatoric uncertainty) and the reliability (i.e., epistemic uncertainty) that comes with a prediction. We present AE-DNN, a model allowing the separation of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty while maintaining a proper generalization capability. AE-DNN is based on deterministic DNN, which can determine the respective uncertainty measures in a single forward pass. In analyses with synthetic and image data, we show that our method improves the modeling of epistemic uncertainty while providing an intuitively understandable separation of risk and reliability.

Delivering Meaningful Representation for Monocular Depth Estimation

Doyeon Kim, Donggyu Joo, Junmo Kim
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Monocular Depth Estimation by Bridging the Context between Encoding and Decoding

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Monocular depth estimation plays a key role in 3D scene understanding, and a number of recent papers have achieved significant improvements using deep learning based algorithms. Most papers among them proposed methods that use a pre-trained network as a deep feature extractor and then decode the obtained features to create a depth map. In this study, we focus on how to use this encoder-decoder structure to deliver meaningful representation throughout the entire network. We propose a new network architecture with our suggested modules to create a more accurate depth map by bridging the context between the encoding and decoding phase. First, we place the pyramid block at the bottleneck of the network to enlarge the view and convey rich information about the global context to the decoder. Second, we suggest a skip connection with the fuse module to aggregate the encoder and decoder feature. Finally, we validate our approach on the NYU Depth V2 and KITTI datasets. The experimental results prove the efficacy of the suggested model and show performance gains over the state-of-the-art model.

Ordinal Depth Classification Using Region-Based Self-Attention

Minh Hieu Phan, Son Lam Phung, Abdesselam Bouzerdoum
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Region-based Self-Attention for Multi-scale Depth Estimation from a Single 2D Image

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Depth estimation from a single 2D image has been widely applied in 3D understanding, 3D modelling and robotics. It is challenging as reliable cues (e.g. stereo correspondences and motions) are not available. Most of the modern approaches exploited multi-scale feature extraction to provide more powerful representations for deep networks. However, these studies have not focused on how to effectively fuse the learned multi-scale features. This paper proposes a novel region-based self-attention (rSA) module. The rSA recalibrates the multi-scale responses by explicitly modelling the interdependency between channels in separate image regions. We discretize continuous depths to solve an ordinal depth classification in which the relative order between categories is significant. We contribute a dataset of 4410 RGB-D images, captured in outdoor environments at the University of Wollongong's campus. In our experimental results, the proposed module improves the lightweight models on small-sized datasets by 22% - 40%

P2D: A Self-Supervised Method for Depth Estimation from Polarimetry

Marc Blanchon, Desire Sidibe, Olivier Morel, Ralph Seulin, Daniel Braun, Fabrice Meriaudeau
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Polarimetric Regularization for Monocular Depth Estimation

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Monocular depth estimation is a recurring subject in the field of computer vision. Its ability to describe scenes via a depth map while reducing the constraints related to the formulation of perspective geometry tends to favor its use. However, despite the constant improvement of algorithms, most methods exploit only colorimetric information. Consequently, robustness to events to which the modality is not sensitive to, like specularity or transparency, is neglected. In response to this phenomenon, we propose using polarimetry as an input for a self-supervised monodepth network. Therefore, we propose exploiting polarization cues to encourage accurate reconstruction of scenes. Furthermore, we include a term of polarimetric regularization to state-of-the-art method to take specific advantage of the data. Our method is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrating that the contribution of this new information as well as an enhanced loss function improves depth estimation results, especially for specular areas.

Multi-Scale Residual Pyramid Attention Network for Monocular Depth Estimation

Jing Liu, Xiaona Zhang, Zhaoxin Li, Tianlu Mao
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-scale Residual Pyramid Attention Network for Monocular Depth Estimation

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Monocular depth estimation is a challenging problem in computer vision and is crucial for understanding 3D scene geometry. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) based methods have improved the estimation accuracy significantly. However, existing methods fail to consider complex textures and geometries in scenes, thereby resulting in loss of local details, distorted object boundaries, and blurry reconstruction. In this paper, we proposed an end-to-end Multi-scale Residual Pyramid Attention Network (MRPAN) to mitigate these problems.First,we propose a Multi-scale Attention Context Aggregation (MACA) module, which consists of Spatial Attention Module (SAM) and Global Attention Module (GAM). By considering the position and scale correlation of pixels from spatial and global perspectives, the proposed module can adaptively learn the similarity between pixels so as to obtain more global context information of the image and recover the complex structure in the scene. Then we proposed an improved Residual Refinement Module (RRM) to further refine the scene structure, giving rise to deeper semantic information and retain more local details. Experimental results show that our method achieves more promisin performance in object boundaries and local details compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

Leveraging a Weakly Adversarial Paradigm for Joint Learning of Disparity and Confidence Estimation

Matteo Poggi, Fabio Tosi, Filippo Aleotti, Stefano Mattoccia
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Joint Training of Deep-Networks for Outlier Detection from Stereo Images

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Deep architectures represent the state-of-the-art for perceiving depth from stereo images. Although these methods are highly accurate, it is crucial to effectively detect any outlier through confidence measures since a wrong perception of even small portions of the sensed scene might lead to catastrophic consequences, for instance, in autonomous driving. Purposely, state-of-the-art confidence estimation methods rely on deep-networks as well. In this paper, arguing that these tasks are two sides of the same coin, we propose a novel paradigm for their joint training. Specifically, inspired by the successful deployment of GANs in other fields, we design two deep architectures: a generator for disparity estimation and a discriminator for distinguishing correct assignments from outliers. The two networks are jointly trained in a new peculiar weakly adversarial manner pushing the former to fix the errors detected by the discriminator while keeping the correct prediction unchanged. Experimental results on standard stereo datasets prove that such joint training paradigm yields significant improvements. Moreover, an additional outcome of our proposal is the ability to detect outliers with better accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art.

Factor Screening Using Bayesian Active Learning and Gaussian Process Meta-Modelling

Cheng Li, Santu Rana, Andrew William Gill, Dang Nguyen, Sunil Kumar Gupta, Svetha Venkatesh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Data-Efficient Bayesian Active Learning for Factor Screening in Combat Simulations

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In this paper we propose a data-efficient Bayesian active learning framework for factor screening, which is important when dealing with systems which are expensive to evaluate, such as combat simulations. We use Gaussian Process meta-modelling with the Automatic Relevance Determination covariance kernel, which measures the importance of each factor by the inverse of their associated length-scales in the kernel. This importance measures the degree of non-linearity in the simulation response with respect to the corresponding factor. We initially place a prior over the length-scale values, then use the estimated posterior to select the next datum to simulate which maximises the mutual entropy between the length-scales and the unknown simulation response. Our goal-driven Bayesian active learning strategy ensures that we are data-efficient in discovering the correct values of the length-scales compared to either a random-sampling or uncertainty-sampling based approach. We apply our method to an expensive combat simulation and demonstrate the superiority of our approach.

Dynamic Guided Network for Monocular Depth Estimation

Xiaoxia Xing, Yinghao Cai, Yiping Yang, Dayong Wen
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; DGNet: Dynamic Guidance Upsampling for Self-attention-Decoding for Monocular Depth Estimation

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Self-attention or encoder-decoder structure has been widely used in deep neural networks for monocular depth estimation tasks. The former mechanism are capable to capture long-range information by computing the representation of each position by a weighted sum of the features at all positions, while the latter networks can capture structural details information by gradually recovering the spatial information. In this work, we combine the advantages of both methods. Specifically, our proposed model, DGNet, extends EMANet Network by adding an effective decoder module to refine the depth results. In the decoder stage, we further design dynamic guidance upsampling which uses local neighboring information of low-level features guide coarser depth to upsample. In this way, dynamic guidance upsampling generates content-dependent and spatially-variant kernels for depth upsampling which makes full use of spatial details information from low-level features. Experimental results demonstrate that our method obtains higher accuracy and generates the desired depth map.

Quantifying Model Uncertainty in Inverse Problems Via Bayesian Deep Gradient Descent

Riccardo Barbano, Chen Zhang, Simon Arridge, Bangti Jin
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Bayesian Neural Networks for Inverse Reconstruction via Bayesian Knowledge-Aided Computation

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Recent advances in reconstruction methods for inverse problems leverage powerful data-driven models, e.g., deep neural networks. These techniques have demonstrated state-of-the-art performances for several imaging tasks, but they often do not provide uncertainty on the obtained reconstructions. In this work, we develop a novel scalable data-driven knowledge-aided computational framework to quantify the model uncertainty via Bayesian neural networks. The approach builds on and extends deep gradient descent, a recently developed greedy iterative training scheme, and recasts it within a probabilistic framework. Scalability is achieved by being hybrid in the architecture: only the last layer of each block is Bayesian, while the others remain deterministic, and by being greedy in training. The framework is showcased on one representative medical imaging modality, viz. computed tomography with either sparse view or limited view data, and exhibits competitive performance with respect to state-of-the-art benchmarks, e.g., total variation, deep gradient descent and learned primal-dual.

Variational Information Bottleneck Model for Accurate Indoor Position Recognition

Weizhu Qian, Franck Gechter
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Variational Information Bottleneck for Indoor Positioning with WiFi Fingerprints

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Recognizing user location with WiFi fingerprints is a popular method for accurate indoor positioning problems. In this work, we want to interpret WiFi fingerprints into actual user locations. However, the WiFi fingerprint data can be very high dimensional, we need to find a good representation of the input data for the learning task at first. Otherwise, the neural networks will suffer from sever overfitting problems. In this work, we solve this problem by combining the Information Bottleneck method and Variational Inference. Based on these two approaches, we propose a Variational Information Bottleneck model for accurate indoor positioning. The proposed model consists of an encoder structure and a predictor structure. The encoder is to find a good representation in the input data for the learning task. The predictor is to use the latent representation to predict the final output. To enhance the generalization of our model, we also adopt the Dropout technique for the each hidden layer of the decoder. We conduct the validation experiments on a real world dataset. We also compared the proposed model to other existing methods so as to quantify the performances of our method.

Orthographic Projection Linear Regression for Single Image 3D Human Pose Estimation

Yahui Zhang, Shaodi You, Theo Gevers
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; A Deep Neural Network for 3D Human Pose Estimation from a Single 2D Image in the Wild

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3D human pose estimation from a single 2D image in the wild is an important computer vision task but yet extremely challenging. Unlike images taken from indoor and well constrained environments, 2D outdoor images in the wild are extremely complex because of varying imaging conditions. Furthermore, 2D images usually do not have corresponding 3D pose ground truth making a supervised approach ill constrained. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to associate the 3D human pose, the 2D human pose projection and the 2D image appearance through a new orthographic projection based linear regression module. Unlike existing reprojection based approaches, our orthographic projection and regression do not suffer from small angle problems, which usually lead to overfitting in the depth dimension. Hence, we propose a deep neural network which adopts the 2D pose, 3D pose regression and orthographic projection linear regression module. The proposed method shows state-of-the art performance on the Human3.6M dataset and generalizes well to in-the-wild images.

Improving Visual Relation Detection Using Depth Maps

Sahand Sharifzadeh, Sina Moayed Baharlou, Max Berrendorf, Rajat Koner, Volker Tresp
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Exploiting Depth Maps for Visual Relation Detection

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State-of-the-art visual relation detection methods mostly rely on object information extracted from RGB images such as 2D bounding boxes, feature maps, and predicted class probabilities. Depth maps can additionally provide valuable information on object relations, e.g. helping to detect not only spatial relations, such as standing behind, but also non-spatial relations, such as holding. In this work, we study the effect of using different object information with a focus on depth maps. To enable this study, we release a new synthetic dataset of depth maps, VG-Depth, as an extension to Visual Genome (VG). We also note that given the highly imbalanced distribution of relations in VG, typical evaluation metrics for visual relation detection cannot reveal improvements of under-represented relations. To address this problem, we propose using an additional metric, calling it Macro Recall@K, and demonstrate its remarkable performance on VG. Finally, our experiments confirm that by effective utilization of depth maps within a simple, yet competitive framework, the performance of visual relation detection can be improved by a margin of up to 8%.

Learning Stereo Matchability in Disparity Regression Networks

Jingyang Zhang, Yao Yao, Zixin Luo, Shiwei Li, Tianwei Shen, Tian Fang, Long Quan
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Stereo Matchability for Weakly Matchable Regions

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Learning-based stereo matching has recently achieved promising results, yet still suffers difficulties in establishing reliable matches in weakly matchable regions that are textureless, non-Lambertian, or occluded. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a stereo matching network that considers pixel-wise matchability. Specifically, the network jointly regresses disparity and matchability maps from 3D probability volume through expectation and entropy operations. Next, a learned attenuation is applied as the robust loss function to alleviate the influence of weakly matchable pixels in the training. Finally, a matchability-aware disparity refinement is introduced to improve the depth inference in weakly matchable regions. The proposed deep stereo matchability (DSM) framework can improve the matching result or accelerate the computation while still guaranteeing the quality. Moreover, the DSM framework is portable to many recent stereo networks. Extensive experiments are conducted on Scene Flow and KITTI stereo datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework over the state-of-the-art learning-based stereo methods.

Hybrid Approach for 3D Head Reconstruction: Using Neural Networks and Visual Geometry

Oussema Bouafif, Bogdan Khomutenko, Mohammed Daoudi
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.11

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Auto-TLDR; Recovering 3D Head Geometry from a Single Image using Deep Learning and Geometric Techniques

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Recovering the 3D geometric structure of a face from a single input image is a challenging active research area in computer vision. In this paper, we present a novel method for reconstructing 3D heads from a single or multiple image(s) using a hybrid approach based on deep learning and geometric techniques. We propose an encoder-decoder network based on the U-net architecture and trained on synthetic data only. It predicts both pixel-wise normal vectors and landmarks maps from a single input photo. Landmarks are used for the pose computation and the initialization of the optimization problem, which, in turn, reconstructs the 3D head geometry by using a parametric morphable model and normal vector fields. State-of-the-art results are achieved through qualitative and quantitative evaluation tests on both single and multi-view settings. Despite the fact that the model was trained only on synthetic data, it successfully recovers 3D geometry and precise poses for real-world images.

Movement-Induced Priors for Deep Stereo

Yuxin Hou, Muhammad Kamran Janjua, Juho Kannala, Arno Solin
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Fusing Stereo Disparity Estimation with Movement-induced Prior Information

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We propose a method for fusing stereo disparity estimation with movement-induced prior information. Instead of independent inference frame-by-frame, we formulate the problem as a non-parametric learning task in terms of a temporal Gaussian process prior with a movement-driven kernel for inter-frame reasoning. We present a hierarchy of three Gaussian process kernels depending on the availability of motion information, where our main focus is on a new gyroscope-driven kernel for handheld devices with low-quality MEMS sensors, thus also relaxing the requirement of having full 6D camera poses available. We show how our method can be combined with two state-of-the-art deep stereo methods. The method either work in a plug-and-play fashion with pre-trained deep stereo networks, or further improved by jointly training the kernels together with encoder--decoder architectures, leading to consistent improvement.

RefiNet: 3D Human Pose Refinement with Depth Maps

Andrea D'Eusanio, Stefano Pini, Guido Borghi, Roberto Vezzani, Rita Cucchiara
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T2.3

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Auto-TLDR; RefiNet: A Multi-stage Framework for 3D Human Pose Estimation

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Human Pose Estimation is a fundamental task for many applications in the Computer Vision community and it has been widely investigated in the 2D domain, i.e. intensity images. Therefore, most of the available methods for this task are mainly based on 2D Convolutional Neural Networks and huge manually-annotated RGB datasets, achieving stunning results. In this paper, we propose RefiNet, a multi-stage framework that regresses an extremely-precise 3D human pose estimation from a given 2D pose and a depth map. The framework consists of three different modules, each one specialized in a particular refinement and data representation, i.e. depth patches, 3D skeleton and point clouds. Moreover, we collect a new dataset, namely Baracca, acquired with RGB, depth and thermal cameras and specifically created for the automotive context. Experimental results confirm the quality of the refinement procedure that largely improves the human pose estimations of off-the-shelf 2D methods.

Object Detection on Monocular Images with Two-Dimensional Canonical Correlation Analysis

Zifan Yu, Suya You
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-Task Object Detection from Monocular Images Using Multimodal RGB and Depth Data

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Accurate and robust detection objects from monocular images is a fundamental vision task. This paper describes a novel approach of holistic scene understanding that can simultaneously achieve multiple tasks of scene reconstruction and object detection from a single monocular camera. Rather than pursuing an independent solution for each individual task as most existing work does, we seek a globally optimal solution that holistically resolves the multiple perception and reasoning tasks in an effective manner. The approach explores the complementary properties of multimodal RGB imagery and depth data to improve scene perception tasks. It uniquely combines the techniques of canonical correlation analysis and deep learning to learn the most correlated features to maximize the modal cross-correlation for improving the performance and robustness of object detection in complex environments. Extensive experiments have been conducted to evaluate and demonstrate the performances of the proposed approach.

PolyLaneNet: Lane Estimation Via Deep Polynomial Regression

Talles Torres, Rodrigo Berriel, Thiago Paixão, Claudine Badue, Alberto F. De Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Real-Time Lane Detection with Deep Polynomial Regression

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One of the main factors that contributed to the large advances in autonomous driving is the advent of deep learning. For safer self-driving vehicles, one of the problems that has yet to be solved completely is lane detection. Since methods for this task have to work in real time (+30 FPS), they not only have to be effective (i.e., have high accuracy) but they also have to be efficient (i.e., fast). In this work, we present a novel method for lane detection that uses as input an image from a forward-looking camera mounted in the vehicle and outputs polynomials representing each lane marking in the image, via deep polynomial regression. The proposed method is shown to be competitive with existing state-of-the-art methods in the TuSimple dataset, while maintaining its efficiency (115 FPS). Additionally, extensive qualitative results on two additional public datasets are presented, alongside with limitations in the evaluation metrics used by recent works for lane detection. Finally, we provide source code and trained models that allow others to replicate all the results shown in this paper, which is surprisingly rare in state-of-the-art lane detection methods.

A Bayesian Approach to Reinforcement Learning of Vision-Based Vehicular Control

Zahra Gharaee, Karl Holmquist, Linbo He, Michael Felsberg
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; Bayesian Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Driving

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In this paper, we present a state-of-the-art reinforcement learning method for autonomous driving. Our approach employs temporal difference learning in a Bayesian framework to learn vehicle control signals from sensor data. The agent has access to images from a forward facing camera, which are pre-processed to generate semantic segmentation maps. We trained our system using both ground truth and estimated semantic segmentation input. Based on our observations from a large set of experiments, we conclude that training the system on ground truth input data leads to better performance than training the system on estimated input even if estimated input is used for evaluation. The system is trained and evaluated in a realistic simulated urban environment using the CARLA simulator. The simulator also contains a benchmark that allows for comparing to other systems and methods. The required training time of the system is shown to be lower and the performance on the benchmark superior to competing approaches.

Self-Supervised Learning for Astronomical Image Classification

Ana Martinazzo, Mateus Espadoto, Nina S. T. Hirata
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Unlabeled Astronomical Images for Deep Neural Network Pre-training

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In Astronomy, a huge amount of image data is generated daily by photometric surveys, which scan the sky to collect data from stars, galaxies and other celestial objects. In this paper, we propose a technique to leverage unlabeled astronomical images to pre-train deep convolutional neural networks, in order to learn a domain-specific feature extractor which improves the results of machine learning techniques in setups with small amounts of labeled data available. We show that our technique produces results which are in many cases better than using ImageNet pre-training.

Rank-Based Ordinal Classification

Joan Serrat, Idoia Ruiz
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; Ordinal Classification with Order

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Differently from the regular classification task, in ordinal classification there is an order in the classes. As a consequence not all classification errors matter the same: a predicted class close to the groundtruth one is better than predicting a farther away class. To account for this, most previous works employ loss functions based on the absolute difference between the predicted and groundtruth class {\em labels}. We argue that there are many cases in ordinal classification where label values are arbitrary (for instance 1\ldots $C$, being $C$ the number of classes) and thus such loss functions may not be the best choice. We instead propose a network architecture that produces not a single class prediction but an ordered vector, or ranking, of all the possible classes from most to less likely. This is tanks to a loss function that compares groundtruth and predicted rankings of these class labels, not the labels themselves. Another advantage of this new formulation is that we can enforce consistency in the predictions, namely, predicted rankings come from some unimodal vector of scores with mode at the groundtruth class. We compare with the state of the art ordinal classification methods, showing that ours attains equal or better performance, as measured by common ordinal classification metrics, on three benchmark datasets. Furthermore, it is also suitable for a new task on image aesthetics assessment, \textit{i.e.}, most voted score prediction. Finally, we also apply it to building damage assessment from satellite images, providing an analysis of its performance depending on the degree of imbalance of the dataset.

Learning Semantic Representations Via Joint 3D Face Reconstruction and Facial Attribute Estimation

Zichun Weng, Youjun Xiang, Xianfeng Li, Juntao Liang, Wanliang Huo, Yuli Fu
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Joint Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction with Facial Attribute Estimation

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We propose a novel joint framework for 3D face reconstruction (3DFR) that integrates facial attribute estimation (FAE) as an auxiliary task. One of the essential problems of 3DFR is to extract semantic facial features (e.g., Big Nose, High Cheekbones, and Asian) from in-the-wild 2D images, which is inherently involved with FAE. These two tasks, though heterogeneous, are highly relevant to each other. To achieve this, we leverage a Convolutional Neural Network to extract shared facial representations for both shape decoder and attribute classifier. We further develop an in-batch hybrid-task training scheme that enables our model to learn from heterogeneous facial datasets jointly within a mini-batch. Thanks to the joint loss that provides supervision from both 3DFR and FAE domains, our model learns the correlations between 3D shapes and facial attributes, which benefit both feature extraction and shape inference. Quantitative evaluation and qualitative visualization results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of our joint framework.

Iterative Label Improvement: Robust Training by Confidence Based Filtering and Dataset Partitioning

Christian Haase-Schütz, Rainer Stal, Heinz Hertlein, Bernhard Sick
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Meta Training and Labelling for Unlabelled Data

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State-of-the-art, high capacity deep neural networks not only require large amounts of labelled training data, they are also highly susceptible to labelling errors in this data, typically resulting in large efforts and costs and therefore limiting the applicability of deep learning. To alleviate this issue, we propose a novel meta training and labelling scheme that is able to use inexpensive unlabelled data by taking advantage of the generalization power of deep neural networks. We show experimentally that by solely relying on one network architecture and our proposed scheme of combining self-training with pseudolabels, both label quality and resulting model accuracy, can be improved significantly. Our method achieves state-of-the-art results, while being architecture agnostic and therefore broadly applicable. Compared to other methods dealing with erroneous labels, our approach does neither require another network to be trained, nor does it necessarily need an additional, highly accurate reference label set. Instead of removing samples from a labelled set, our technique uses additional sensor data without the need for manual labelling. Furthermore, our approach can be used for semi-supervised learning.

PROPEL: Probabilistic Parametric Regression Loss for Convolutional Neural Networks

Muhammad Asad, Rilwan Basaru, S M Masudur Rahman Al Arif, Greg Slabaugh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; PRObabilistic Parametric rEgression Loss for Probabilistic Regression Using Convolutional Neural Networks

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In recent years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have enabled significant advancements to the state-of-the-art in computer vision. For classification tasks, CNNs have widely employed probabilistic output and have shown the significance of providing additional confidence for predictions. However, such probabilistic methodologies are not widely applicable for addressing regression problems using CNNs, as regression involves learning unconstrained continuous and, in many cases, multi-variate target variables. We propose a PRObabilistic Parametric rEgression Loss (PROPEL) that facilitates CNNs to learn parameters of probability distributions for addressing probabilistic regression problems. PROPEL is fully differentiable and, hence, can be easily incorporated for end-to-end training of existing CNN regression architectures using existing optimization algorithms. The proposed method is flexible as it enables learning complex unconstrained probabilities while being generalizable to higher dimensional multi-variate regression problems. We utilize a PROPEL-based CNN to address the problem of learning hand and head orientation from uncalibrated color images. Our experimental validation and comparison with existing CNN regression loss functions show that PROPEL improves the accuracy of a CNN by enabling probabilistic regression, while significantly reducing required model parameters by 10x, resulting in improved generalization as compared to the existing state-of-the-art.

Uncertainty-Sensitive Activity Recognition: A Reliability Benchmark and the CARING Models

Alina Roitberg, Monica Haurilet, Manuel Martinez, Rainer Stiefelhagen
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session OS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; CARING: Calibrated Action Recognition with Input Guidance

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Beyond assigning the correct class, an activity recognition model should also to be able to determine, how certain it is in its predictions. We present the first study of how well the confidence values of modern action recognition architectures indeed reflect the probability of the correct outcome and propose a learning-based approach for improving it. First, we extend two popular action recognition datasets with a reliability benchmark in form of the expected calibration error and reliability diagrams. Since our evaluation highlights that confidence values of standard action recognition architectures do not represent the uncertainty well, we introduce a new approach which learns to transform the model output into realistic confidence estimates through an additional calibration network. The main idea of our Calibrated Action Recognition with Input Guidance (CARING) model is to learn an optimal scaling parameter depending on the video representation. We compare our model with the native action recognition networks and the temperature scaling approach - a wide spread calibration method utilized in image classification. While temperature scaling alone drastically improves the reliability of the confidence values, our CARING method consistently leads to the best uncertainty estimates in all benchmark settings.

Improving reliability of attention branch network by introducing uncertainty

Takuya Tsukahara, Tsubasa Hirakawa, Takayoshi Yamashita, Hironobu Fujiyoshi
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T3.8

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Auto-TLDR; Bayesian Attention Branch Network for Convolutional Neural Networks

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Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are being used in various fields related to image recognition and are achieving high recognition accuracy. However, most existing CNNs do not consider uncertainty in their predictions; that is, they do not account for the difficulty of prediction, and the extent to which their predictions are reliable is unclear. This problem is considered to be the cause of erroneous decisions when we use CNNs in practice. By considering the uncertainty of the prediction result, it is thought that recognition accuracy would improve, and erroneous decisions would be suppressed. We propose a Bayesian attention branch network (Bayesian ABN) that incorporates uncertainty into an attention branch network (ABN). The method incorporates a Bayesian neural network (Bayesian NN) into the ABN to account for uncertainty in the prediction result. Also, it outputs prediction results from two branches and chooses the one having the lower uncertainty. In evaluations using standard object recognition datasets, we confirmed that the proposed method improves the accuracy and reliability of CNNs.

Occlusion-Tolerant and Personalized 3D Human Pose Estimation in RGB Images

Ammar Qammaz, Antonis Argyros
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Real-Time 3D Human Pose Estimation in BVH using Inverse Kinematics Solver and Neural Networks

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We introduce a real-time method that estimates the 3D human pose directly in the popular BVH format, given estimations of the 2D body joints in RGB images. Our contributions include: (a) A novel and compact 2D pose representation. (b) A human body orientation classifier and an ensemble of orientation-tuned neural networks that regress the 3D human pose by also allowing for the decomposition of the body to an upper and lower kinematic hierarchy. This permits the recovery of the human pose even in the case of significant occlusions. (c) An efficient Inverse Kinematics solver that refines the neural-network-based solution providing 3D human pose estimations that are consistent with the limb sizes of a target person (if known). All the above yield a 33% accuracy improvement on the H3.6M dataset compared to the baseline MocapNET method while maintaining real-time performance (70 fps in CPU-only execution).

Can You Trust Your Pose? Confidence Estimation in Visual Localization

Luca Ferranti, Xiaotian Li, Jani Boutellier, Juho Kannala
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.11

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Auto-TLDR; Pose Confidence Estimation in Large-Scale Environments: A Light-weight Approach to Improving Pose Estimation Pipeline

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Camera pose estimation in large-scale environments is still an open question and, despite recent promising results, it may still fail in some situations. The research so far has focused on improving subcomponents of estimation pipelines, to achieve more accurate poses. However, there is no guarantee for the result to be correct, even though the correctness of pose estimation is critically important in several visual localization applications, such as in autonomous navigation. In this paper we bring to attention a novel research question, pose confidence estimation, where we aim at quantifying how reliable the visually estimated pose is. We develop a novel confidence measure to fulfill this task and show that it can be flexibly applied to different datasets, indoor or outdoor, and for various visual localization pipelines. We also show that the proposed techniques can be used to accomplish a secondary goal: improving the accuracy of existing pose estimation pipelines. Finally, the proposed approach is computationally light-weight and adds only a negligible increase to the computational effort of pose estimation.

Generalization Comparison of Deep Neural Networks Via Output Sensitivity

Mahsa Forouzesh, Farnood Salehi, Patrick Thiran
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Generalization of Deep Neural Networks using Sensitivity

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Although recent works have brought some insights into the performance improvement of techniques used in state-of-the-art deep-learning models, more work is needed to understand their generalization properties. We shed light on this matter by linking the loss function to the output's sensitivity to its input. We find a rather strong empirical relation between the output sensitivity and the variance in the bias-variance decomposition of the loss function, which hints on using sensitivity as a metric for comparing the generalization performance of networks, without requiring labeled data. We find that sensitivity is decreased by applying popular methods which improve the generalization performance of the model, such as (1) using a deep network rather than a wide one, (2) adding convolutional layers to baseline classifiers instead of adding fully-connected layers, (3) using batch normalization, dropout and max-pooling, and (4) applying parameter initialization techniques.

Learning to Rank for Active Learning: A Listwise Approach

Minghan Li, Xialei Liu, Joost Van De Weijer, Bogdan Raducanu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Learning Loss for Active Learning

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Active learning emerged as an alternative to alleviate the effort to label huge amount of data for data-hungry applications (such as image/video indexing and retrieval, autonomous driving, etc.). The goal of active learning is to automatically select a number of unlabeled samples for annotation (according to a budget), based on an acquisition function, which indicates how valuable a sample is for training the model. The learning loss method is a task-agnostic approach which attaches a module to learn to predict the target loss of unlabeled data, and select data with the highest loss for labeling. In this work, we follow this strategy but we define the acquisition function as a learning to rank problem and rethink the structure of the loss prediction module, using a simple but effective listwise approach. Experimental results on four datasets demonstrate that our method outperforms recent state-of-the-art active learning approaches for both image classification and regression tasks.

Automatically Mining Relevant Variable Interactions Via Sparse Bayesian Learning

Ryoichiro Yafune, Daisuke Sakuma, Yasuo Tabei, Noritaka Saito, Hiroto Saigo
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Sparse Bayes for Interpretable Non-linear Prediction

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With the rapid increase in the availability of large amount of data, prediction is becoming increasingly popular, and has widespread through our daily life. However, powerful non- linear prediction methods such as deep learning and SVM suffer from interpretability problem, making it hard to use in domains where the reason for decision making is required. In this paper, we develop an interpretable non-linear model called itemset Sparse Bayes (iSB), which builds a Bayesian probabilistic model, while simultaneously considering variable interactions. In order to suppress the resulting large number of variables, sparsity is imposed on regression weights by a sparsity inducing prior. As a subroutine to search for variable interactions, itemset enumeration algorithm is employed with a novel bounding condition. In computational experiments using real-world dataset, the proposed method performed better than decision tree by 10% in terms of r-squared . We also demonstrated the advantage of our method in Bayesian optimization setting, in which the proposed approach could successfully find the maximum of an unknown function faster than Gaussian process. The interpretability of iSB is naturally inherited to Bayesian optimization, thereby gives us a clue to understand which variables interactions are important in optimizing an unknown function.

Probabilistic Latent Factor Model for Collaborative Filtering with Bayesian Inference

Jiansheng Fang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Yan Hu, Yanwu Xu, Ming Yang, Jiang Liu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Bayesian Latent Factor Model for Collaborative Filtering

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Latent Factor Model (LFM) is one of the most successful methods for Collaborative filtering (CF) in the recommendation system, in which both users and items are projected into a joint latent factor space. Base on matrix factorization applied usually in pattern recognition, LFM models user-item interactions as inner products of factor vectors of user and item in that space and can be efficiently solved by least square methods with optimal estimation. However, such optimal estimation methods are prone to overfitting due to the extreme sparsity of user-item interactions. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian treatment for LFM, named Bayesian Latent Factor Model (BLFM). Based on observed user-item interactions, we build a probabilistic factor model in which the regularization is introduced via placing prior constraint on latent factors, and the likelihood function is established over observations and parameters. Then we draw samples of latent factors from the posterior distribution with Variational Inference (VI) to predict expected value. We further make an extension to BLFM, called BLFMBias, incorporating user-dependent and item-dependent biases into the model for enhancing performance. Extensive experiments on the movie rating dataset show the effectiveness of our proposed models by compared with several strong baselines.

Multi-Camera Sports Players 3D Localization with Identification Reasoning

Yukun Yang, Ruiheng Zhang, Wanneng Wu, Yu Peng, Xu Min
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Probabilistic and Identified Occupancy Map for Sports Players 3D Localization

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Multi-camera sports players 3D localization is always a challenging task due to heavy occlusions in crowded sports scene. Traditional methods can only provide players locations without identification information. Existing methods of localization may cause ambiguous detection and unsatisfactory precision and recall, especially when heavy occlusions occur. To solve this problem, we propose a generic localization method by providing distinguishable results that have the probabilities of locations being occupied by players with unique ID labels. We design the algorithms with a multi-dimensional Bayesian model to create a Probabilistic and Identified Occupancy Map (PIOM). By using this model, we jointly apply deep learning-based object segmentation and identification to obtain sports players probable positions and their likely identification labels. This approach not only provides players 3D locations but also gives their ID information that are distinguishable from others. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the previous localization approaches with reliable and distinguishable outcomes.

Better Prior Knowledge Improves Human-Pose-Based Extrinsic Camera Calibration

Olivier Moliner, Sangxia Huang, Kalle Åström
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T3.5

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Auto-TLDR; Improving Human-pose-based Extrinsic Calibration for Multi-Camera Systems

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Accurate extrinsic calibration of wide baseline multi-camera systems enables better understanding of 3D scenes for many applications and is of great practical importance. Classical Structure-from-Motion calibration methods require special calibration equipment so that accurate point correspondences can be detected between different views. In addition, an operator with some training is usually needed to ensure that data is collected in a way that leads to good calibration accuracy. This limits the ease of adoption of such technologies. Recently, methods have been proposed to use human pose estimation models to establish point correspondences, thus removing the need for any special equipment. The challenge with this approach is that human pose estimation algorithms typically produce much less accurate feature points compared to classical patch-based methods. Another problem is that ambient human motion might not be optimal for calibration. We build upon prior works and introduce several novel ideas to improve the accuracy of human-pose-based extrinsic calibration. Our first contribution is a robust reprojection loss based on a better understanding of the sources of pose estimation error. Our second contribution is a 3D human pose likelihood model learned from motion capture data. We demonstrate significant improvements in calibration accuracy by evaluating our method on four publicly available datasets.

DR2S: Deep Regression with Region Selection for Camera Quality Evaluation

Marcelin Tworski, Stéphane Lathuiliere, Salim Belkarfa, Attilio Fiandrotti, Marco Cagnazzo
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T5.6

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Auto-TLDR; Texture Quality Estimation Using Deep Learning

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In this work, we tackle the problem of estimating a camera capability to preserve fine texture details at a given lighting condition. Importantly, our texture preservation measurement should coincide with human perception. Consequently, we formulate our problem as a regression one and we introduce a deep convolutional network to estimate texture quality score. At training time, we use ground-truth quality scores provided by expert human annotators in order to obtain a subjective quality measure. In addition, we propose a region selection method to identify the image regions that are better suited at measuring perceptual quality. Finally, our experimental evaluation shows that our learning-based approach outperforms existing methods and that our region selection algorithm consistently improves the quality estimation.

Age Gap Reducer-GAN for Recognizing Age-Separated Faces

Daksha Yadav, Naman Kohli, Mayank Vatsa, Richa Singh, Afzel Noore
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T2.1

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Auto-TLDR; Generative Adversarial Network for Age-separated Face Recognition

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In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for matching faces with temporal variations caused due to age progression. The proposed generative adversarial network algorithm is a unified framework which combines facial age estimation and age-separated face verification. The key idea of this approach is to learn the age variations across time by conditioning the input image on the subject's gender and the target age group to which the face needs to be progressed. The loss function accounts for reducing the age gap between the original image and generated face image as well as preserving the identity. Both visual fidelity and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture on different facial age databases for age-separated face recognition.

Rethinking of Deep Models Parameters with Respect to Data Distribution

Shitala Prasad, Dongyun Lin, Yiqun Li, Sheng Dong, Zaw Min Oo
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; A progressive stepwise training strategy for deep neural networks

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The performance of deep learning models are driven by various parameters but to tune all of them every time, for every dataset, is a heuristic practice. In this paper, unlike the common practice of decaying the learning rate, we propose a step-wise training strategy where the learning rate and the batch size are tuned based on the dataset size. Here, the given dataset size is progressively increased during the training to boost the network performance without saturating the learning curve, after certain epochs. We conducted extensive experiments on multiple networks and datasets to validate the proposed training strategy. The experimental results proves our hypothesis that the learning rate, the batch size and the data size are interrelated and can improve the network accuracy if an optimal progressive stepwise training strategy is applied. The proposed strategy also the overall training computational cost is reduced.

Aggregating Dependent Gaussian Experts in Local Approximation

Hamed Jalali, Gjergji Kasneci
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; A novel approach for aggregating the Gaussian experts by detecting strong violations of conditional independence

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Distributed Gaussian processes (DGPs) are prominent local approximation methods to scale Gaussian processes (GPs) to large datasets. Instead of a global estimation, they train local experts by dividing the training set into subsets, thus reducing the time complexity. This strategy is based on the conditional independence assumption, which basically means that there is a perfect diversity between the local experts. In practice, however, this assumption is often violated, and the aggregation of experts leads to sub-optimal and inconsistent solutions. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for aggregating the Gaussian experts by detecting strong violations of conditional independence. The dependency between experts is determined by using a Gaussian graphical model, which yields the precision matrix. The precision matrix encodes conditional dependencies between experts and is used to detect strongly dependent experts and construct an improved aggregation. Using both synthetic and real datasets, our experimental evaluations illustrate that our new method outperforms other state-of-the-art (SOTA) DGP approaches while being substantially more time-efficient than SOTA approaches, which build on independent experts.

Derivation of Geometrically and Semantically Annotated UAV Datasets at Large Scales from 3D City Models

Sidi Wu, Lukas Liebel, Marco Körner
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.3

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Auto-TLDR; Large-Scale Dataset of Synthetic UAV Imagery for Geometric and Semantic Annotation

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While in high demand for the development of deep learning approaches, extensive datasets of annotated UAV imagery are still scarce today. Manual annotation, however, is time-consuming and, thus, has limited the potential for creating large-scale datasets. We tackle this challenge by presenting a procedure for the automatic creation of simulated UAV image sequences in urban areas and pixel-level annotations from publicly available data sources. We synthesize photo-realistic UAV imagery from Goole Earth Studio and derive annotations from an open CityGML model that not only provides geometric but also semantic information. The first dataset we exemplarily created using our approach contains 144000 images of Berlin, Germany, with four types of annotations, namely semantic labels as well as depth, surface normals, and edge maps. In the future, a complete pipeline regarding all the technical problems will be provided, together with more accurate models to refine some of the empirical settings currently, to automatically generate a large-scale dataset with reliable ground-truth annotations over the whole city of Berlin. The dataset, as well as the source code, will be published by then. Different methods will also be facilitated to test the usability of the dataset. We believe our dataset can be used for, and not limited to, tasks like pose estimation, geo-localization, monocular depth estimation, edge detection, building/surface classification, and plane segmentation. A potential research pipeline for geo-localization based on the synthetic dataset is provided.

Learning Error-Driven Curriculum for Crowd Counting

Wenxi Li, Zhuoqun Cao, Qian Wang, Songjian Chen, Rui Feng
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Learning Error-Driven Curriculum for Crowd Counting with TutorNet

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Density regression has been widely employed in crowd counting. However, the frequency imbalance of pixel values in the density map is still an obstacle to improve the performance. In this paper, we propose a novel learning strategy for learning error-driven curriculum, which uses an additional network to supervise the training of the main network. A tutoring network called TutorNet is proposed to repetitively indicate the critical errors of the main network. TutorNet generates pixel-level weights to formulate the curriculum for the main network during training, so that the main network will assign a higher weight to those hard examples than easy examples. Furthermore, we scale the density map by a factor to enlarge the distance among inter-examples, which is well known to improve the performance. Extensive experiments on two challenging benchmark datasets show that our method has achieved state-of-the-art performance.

Road Network Metric Learning for Estimated Time of Arrival

Yiwen Sun, Kun Fu, Zheng Wang, Changshui Zhang, Jieping Ye
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Road Network Metric Learning for Estimated Time of Arrival (RNML-ETA)

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Recently, deep learning have achieved promising results in Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), which is considered as predicting the travel time from the origin to the destination along a given path. One of the key techniques is to use embedding vectors to represent the elements of road network, such as the links (road segments). However, the embedding suffers from the data sparsity problem that many links in the road network are traversed by too few floating cars even in large ride-hailing platforms like Uber and DiDi. Insufficient data makes the embedding vectors in an under-fitting status, which undermines the accuracy of ETA prediction. To address the data sparsity problem, we propose the Road Network Metric Learning framework for ETA (RNML ETA). It consists of two components: (1) a main regression task to predict the travel time, and (2) an auxiliary metric learning task to improve the quality of link embedding vectors. We further propose the triangle loss, a novel loss function to improve the efficiency of metric learning. We validated the effectiveness of RNML-ETA on large scale real-world datasets, by showing that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art model and the promotion concentrates on the cold links with few data.