Progressive Cluster Purification for Unsupervised Feature Learning

Yifei Zhang, Chang Liu, Yu Zhou, Wei Wang, Weiping Wang, Qixiang Ye
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Progressive Cluster Purification for Unsupervised Feature Learning

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In unsupervised feature learning, sample specificity based methods ignore the inter-class information, which deteriorates the discriminative capability of representation models. Clustering based methods are error-prone to explore the complete class boundary information due to the inevitable class inconsistent samples in each cluster. In this work, we propose a novel clustering based method, which, by iteratively excluding class inconsistent samples during progressive cluster formation, alleviates the impact of noise samples in a simple-yet-effective manner. Our approach, referred to as Progressive Cluster Purification (PCP), implements progressive clustering by gradually reducing the number of clusters during training, while the sizes of clusters continuously expand consistently with the growth of model representation capability. With a well-designed cluster purification mechanism, it further purifies clusters by filtering noise samples which facilitate the subsequent feature learning by utilizing the refined clusters as pseudo-labels. Experiments on commonly used benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed PCP improves baseline method with significant margins. Our code will be available at https://github.com/zhangyifei0115/PCP.

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Image Representation Learning by Transformation Regression

Xifeng Guo, Jiyuan Liu, Sihang Zhou, En Zhu, Shihao Dong
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Image Representation Learning using Continuous Parameter Prediction

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Self-supervised learning is a thriving research direction since it can relieve the burden of human labeling for machine learning by seeking for supervision from data instead of human annotation. Although demonstrating promising performance in various applications, we observe that the existing methods usually model the auxiliary learning tasks as classification tasks with finite discrete labels, leading to insufficient supervisory signals, which in turn restricts the representation quality. In this paper, to solve the above problem and make full use of the supervision from data, we design a regression model to predict the continuous parameters of a group of transformations, i.e., image rotation, translation, and scaling. Surprisingly, this naive modification stimulates tremendous potential from data and the resulting supervisory signal has largely improved the performance of image representation learning. Extensive experiments on four image datasets, including CIFAR10, CIFAR100, STL10, and SVHN, indicate that our proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised learning methods by a large margin in terms of classification accuracy. Crucially, we find that with our proposed training mechanism as an initialization, the performance of the existing state-of-the-art classification deep architectures can be preferably improved.

Multi-Modal Deep Clustering: Unsupervised Partitioning of Images

Guy Shiran, Daphna Weinshall
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-Modal Deep Clustering for Unlabeled Images

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The clustering of unlabeled raw images is a daunting task, which has recently been approached with some success by deep learning methods. Here we propose an unsupervised clustering framework, which learns a deep neural network in an end-to-end fashion, providing direct cluster assignments of images without additional processing. Multi-Modal Deep Clustering (MMDC), trains a deep network to align its image embeddings with target points sampled from a Gaussian Mixture Model distribution. The cluster assignments are then determined by mixture component association of image embeddings. Simultaneously, the same deep network is trained to solve an additional self-supervised task. This pushes the network to learn more meaningful image representations and stabilizes the training. Experimental results show that MMDC achieves or exceeds state-of-the-art performance on four challenging benchmarks. On natural image datasets we improve on previous results with significant margins of up to 11% absolute accuracy points, yielding an accuracy of 70% on CIFAR-10 and 61% on STL-10.

CANU-ReID: A Conditional Adversarial Network for Unsupervised Person Re-IDentification

Guillaume Delorme, Yihong Xu, Stéphane Lathuiliere, Radu Horaud, Xavier Alameda-Pineda
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T2.1

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Person Re-Identification with Clustering and Adversarial Learning

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Unsupervised person re-ID is the task of identifying people on a target data set for which the ID labels are unavailable during training. In this paper, we propose to unify two trends in unsupervised person re-ID: clustering & fine-tuning and adversarial learning. On one side, clustering groups training images into pseudo-ID labels, and uses them to fine-tune the feature extractor. On the other side, adversarial learning is used, inspired by domain adaptation, to match distributions from different domains. Since target data is distributed across different camera viewpoints, we propose to model each camera as an independent domain, and aim to learn domain-independent features. Straightforward adversarial learning yields negative transfer, we thus introduce a conditioning vector to mitigate this undesirable effect. In our framework, the centroid of the cluster to which the visual sample belongs is used as conditioning vector of our conditional adversarial network, where the vector is permutation invariant (clusters ordering does not matter) and its size is independent of the number of clusters. To our knowledge, we are the first to propose the use of conditional adversarial networks for unsupervised person re-ID. We evaluate the proposed architecture on top of two state-of-the-art clustering-based unsupervised person re-identification (re-ID) methods on four different experimental settings with three different data sets and set the new state-of-the-art performance on all four of them. Our code and model will be made publicly available at https://team.inria.fr/perception/canu-reid/.

Feature-Aware Unsupervised Learning with Joint Variational Attention and Automatic Clustering

Wang Ru, Lin Li, Peipei Wang, Liu Peiyu
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T4.2

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Variational Attention Encoder-Decoder for Clustering

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Deep clustering aims to cluster unlabeled real-world samples by mining deep feature representation. Most of existing methods remain challenging when handling high-dimensional data and simultaneously exploring the complementarity of deep feature representation and clustering. In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Variational Attention Encoder-decoder for Clustering (DVAEC). Our DVAEC improves the representation learning ability by fusing variational attention. Specifically, we design a feature-aware automatic clustering module to mitigate the unreliability of similarity calculation and guide network learning. Besides, to further boost the performance of deep clustering from a global perspective, we define a joint optimization objective to promote feature representation learning and automatic clustering synergistically. Extensive experimental results show the promising performance achieved by our DVAEC on six datasets comparing with several popular baseline clustering methods.

Progressive Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Image-Based Person Re-Identification

Mingliang Yang, Da Huang, Jing Zhao
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Progressive Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Person Re-Identification

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Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) has emerged as an effective paradigm for reducing the huge manual annotation cost for Person Re-Identification (Re-ID). Many of the recent UDA methods for Re-ID are clustering-based and select all the pseudo-label samples in each iteration for the model training. However, there are many wrong labeled samples that will mislead the model optimization under this circumstance. To solve this problem, we propose a Progressive Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (PUDA) framework for image-based Person Re-ID to reduce the negative effect of wrong pseudo-label samples on the model training process. Specifically, we first pretrain a CNN model on a labeled source dataset, then finetune the model on unlabeled target dataset with the following three steps iteratively: 1) estimating pseudo-labels for all the images in the target dataset with the model trained in the last iteration; 2) extending the training set by adding pseudo-label samples with higher label confidence; 3) updating the CNN model with the expanded training set in a supervised manner. During the iteration process, the number of pseudo-label samples added increased progressively. In particular, a Moderate Initial Selections (MIS) strategy for pseudo-label sampling is also proposed to reduce the negative impacts of random noise features in the early iterations and mislabeled samples in the late iterations on the model. The proposed framework with MIS strategy is validated on the Duke-to-Market, Market-to-Duke unsupervised domain adaptation tasks and achieves improvements of 4.2 points (absolute, i.e., 80.0% vs. 75.8%) and 1.7 points (absolute, i.e., 70.7% vs. 69.0%) in mAP correspondingly.

Self-Supervised Domain Adaptation with Consistency Training

Liang Xiao, Jiaolong Xu, Dawei Zhao, Zhiyu Wang, Li Wang, Yiming Nie, Bin Dai
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.15

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Image Classification

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We consider the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation for image classification. To learn target-domain-aware features from the unlabeled data, we create a self-supervised pretext task by augmenting the unlabeled data with a certain type of transformation (specifically, image rotation) and ask the learner to predict the properties of the transformation. However, the obtained feature representation may contain a large amount of irrelevant information with respect to the main task. To provide further guidance, we force the feature representation of the augmented data to be consistent with that of the original data. Intuitively, the consistency introduces additional constraints to representation learning, therefore, the learned representation is more likely to focus on the right information about the main task. Our experimental results validate the proposed method and demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on classical domain adaptation benchmarks.

Class Conditional Alignment for Partial Domain Adaptation

Mohsen Kheirandishfard, Fariba Zohrizadeh, Farhad Kamangar
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-class Adversarial Adaptation for Partial Domain Adaptation

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Adversarial adaptation models have demonstrated significant progress towards transferring knowledge from a labeled source dataset to an unlabeled target dataset. Partial domain adaptation (PDA) investigates the scenarios in which the source domain is large and diverse, and the target label space is a subset of the source label space. The main purpose of PDA is to identify the shared classes between the domains and promote learning transferable knowledge from these classes. In this paper, we propose a multi-class adversarial architecture for PDA. The proposed approach jointly aligns the marginal and class-conditional distributions in the shared label space by minimaxing a novel multi-class adversarial loss function. Furthermore, we incorporate effective regularization terms to encourage selecting the most relevant subset of source domain classes. In the absence of target labels, the proposed approach is able to effectively learn domain-invariant feature representations, which in turn can enhance the classification performance in the target domain. Comprehensive experiments on three benchmark datasets Office-$31$, Office-Home, and Caltech-Office corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in addressing different partial transfer learning tasks.

Teacher-Student Competition for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Ruixin Xiao, Zhilei Liu, Baoyuan Wu
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaption with Teacher-Student Competition

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With the supervision from source domain only in class-level, existing unsupervised domain adaption (UDA) methods mainly learn the domain-invariant representations from a shared feature extractor, which cause the source-bias problem. This paper proposes an unsupervised domain adaption approach with Teacher-Student Competition (TSC). In particular, a student network is introduced to learn the target-specific feature space, and we design a novel competition mechanism to select more credible pseudo-labels for the training of student network. We introduce a teacher network with the structure of existing conventional UDA method, and both teacher and student networks compete to provide target pseudo-labels to constrain every target sample's training in student network. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed TSC framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art domain adaption methods on Office-31 and ImageCLEF-DA benchmarks.

Stochastic Label Refinery: Toward Better Target Label Distribution

Xi Fang, Jiancheng Yang, Bingbing Ni
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Stochastic Label Refinery for Deep Supervised Learning

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This paper proposes a simple yet effective strategy for improving deep supervised learning, named Stochastic Label Refinery (SLR), by refining training labels to more informative labels. When training a neural network, target distributions (or ground-truth) are typically "hard", which means the target label of each category consists of only 0 and 1. However, the fixed "hard" target distributions do not capture association between categories or that between objects. In this study, instead of using the hard target distributions, we iteratively generate "soft" target label distributions for training the neural networks, which leads to better performances. The soft target distributions are obtained via an Expectation-Maximization (EM) iteration, where the "true" target distributions and the learned models are regarded as hidden variables. In E step, the models are optimized to approximate the target distributions on stochastic splits of training data; In M step, the target distributions are updated with predicted pseudo-label on leave-out splits. Extensive experiments on classification and ordinal regression tasks, empirically prove that the refined target distribution consistently leads to considerable performance improvements even applied on competitive baselines. Notably, in DeepDR 2020 Diabetic Retinopathy Grading (DeepDRiD) challenge, our method improves the quadratic weighted kappa on official validation set from 0.8247 to 0.8348 and achieves a state-of-the-art score on online test set. The proposed SLR technique is easy to implement and practically applicable. The code will be open sourced soon.

Variational Deep Embedding Clustering by Augmented Mutual Information Maximization

Qiang Ji, Yanfeng Sun, Yongli Hu, Baocai Yin
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Clustering by Augmented Mutual Information maximization for Deep Embedding

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Clustering is a crucial but challenging task in pattern analysis and machine learning. Recent many deep clustering methods combining representation learning with cluster techniques emerged. These deep clustering methods mainly focus on the correlation among samples and ignore the relationship between samples and their representations. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end clustering framework, namely variational deep embedding clustering by augmented mutual information maximization (VCAMI). From the perspective of VAE, we prove that minimizing reconstruction loss is equivalent to maximizing the mutual information of the input and its latent representation. This provides a theoretical guarantee for us to directly maximize the mutual information instead of minimizing reconstruction loss. Therefore we proposed the augmented mutual information which highlights the uniqueness of the representations while discovering invariant information among similar samples. Extensive experiments on several challenging image datasets show that the VCAMI achieves good performance. we achieve state-of-the-art results for clustering on MNIST (99.5%) and CIFAR-10 (65.4%) to the best of our knowledge.

Self-Paced Bottom-Up Clustering Network with Side Information for Person Re-Identification

Mingkun Li, Chun-Guang Li, Ruo-Pei Guo, Jun Guo
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.2

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Auto-TLDR; Self-Paced Bottom-up Clustering Network with Side Information for Unsupervised Person Re-identification

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Person re-identification (Re-ID) has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. However, supervised methods demand an enormous amount of manually annotated data. In this paper, we propose a Self-Paced bottom-up Clustering Network with Side Information (SPCNet-SI) for unsupervised person Re-ID, where the side information comes from the serial number of the camera associated with each image. Specifically, our proposed SPCNet-SI exploits the camera side information to guide the feature learning and uses soft label in bottom-up clustering process, in which the camera association information is used in the repelled loss and the soft label based cluster information is used to select the candidate cluster pairs to merge. Moreover, a self-paced dynamic mechanism is developed to regularize the merging process such that the clustering is implemented in an easy-to-hard way with a slow-to-fast merging process. Experiments on two benchmark datasets Market-1501 and DukeMTMC-ReID demonstrate promising performance.

Rethinking Deep Active Learning: Using Unlabeled Data at Model Training

Oriane Siméoni, Mateusz Budnik, Yannis Avrithis, Guillaume Gravier
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Unlabeled Data for Active Learning

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Active learning typically focuses on training a model on few labeled examples alone, while unlabeled ones are only used for acquisition. In this work we depart from this setting by using both labeled and unlabeled data during model training across active learning cycles. We do so by using unsupervised feature learning at the beginning of the active learning pipeline and semi-supervised learning at every active learning cycle, on all available data. The former has not been investigated before in active learning, while the study of latter in the context of deep learning is scarce and recent findings are not conclusive with respect to its benefit. Our idea is orthogonal to acquisition strategies by using more data, much like ensemble methods use more models. By systematically evaluating on a number of popular acquisition strategies and datasets, we find that the use of unlabeled data during model training brings a spectacular accuracy improvement in image classification, compared to the differences between acquisition strategies. We thus explore smaller label budgets, even one label per class.

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Person Re-Identification through Source-Guided Pseudo-Labeling

Fabian Dubourvieux, Romaric Audigier, Angélique Loesch, Ainouz-Zemouche Samia, Stéphane Canu
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T2.4

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Auto-TLDR; Pseudo-labeling for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Person Re-Identification

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Person Re-Identification (re-ID) aims at retrieving images of the same person taken by different cameras. A challenge for re-ID is the performance preservation when a model is used on data of interest (target data) which belong to a different domain from the training data domain (source data). Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) is an interesting research direction for this challenge as it avoids a costly annotation of the target data. Pseudo-labeling methods achieve the best results in UDA-based re-ID. They incrementally learn with identity pseudo-labels which are initialized by clustering features in the source re-ID encoder space. Surprisingly, labeled source data are discarded after this initialization step. However, we believe that pseudo-labeling could further leverage the labeled source data in order to improve the post-initialization training steps. In order to improve robustness against erroneous pseudo-labels, we advocate the exploitation of both labeled source data and pseudo-labeled target data during all training iterations. To support our guideline, we introduce a framework which relies on a two-branch architecture optimizing classification in source and target domains, respectively, in order to allow adaptability to the target domain while ensuring robustness to noisy pseudo-labels. Indeed, shared low and mid-level parameters benefit from the source classification signal while high-level parameters of the target branch learn domain-specific features. Our method is simple enough to be easily combined with existing pseudo-labeling UDA approaches. We show experimentally that it is efficient and improves performance when the base method has no mechanism to deal with pseudo-label noise. And it maintains performance when combined with base method that already manages pseudo-label noise. Our approach reaches state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on commonly used datasets, Market-1501 and DukeMTMC-reID, and outperforms the state of the art when targeting the bigger and more challenging dataset MSMT.

Constrained Spectral Clustering Network with Self-Training

Xinyue Liu, Shichong Yang, Linlin Zong
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Constrained Spectral Clustering Network: A Constrained Deep spectral clustering network

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Deep spectral clustering networks have shown their superiorities due to the integration of feature learning and cluster assignment, and the ability to deal with non-convex clusters. Nevertheless, deep spectral clustering is still an ill-posed problem. Specifically, the affinity learned by the most remarkable SpectralNet is not guaranteed to be consistent with local invariance and thus hurts the final clustering performance. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of Constrained Spectral Clustering Network (CSCN) by incorporating pairwise constraints and clustering oriented fine-tuning to deal with the ill-posedness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first constrained deep spectral clustering method. Another advantage of CSCN over existing constrained deep clustering networks is that it propagates pairwise constraints throughout the entire dataset. In addition, we design a clustering oriented loss by self-training to simultaneously finetune feature representations and perform cluster assignments, which further improve the quality of clustering. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art clustering methods.

Class-Incremental Learning with Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

Xinyuan Chang, Xiaoyu Tao, Xiaopeng Hong, Xing Wei, Wei Ke, Yihong Gong
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.10

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Auto-TLDR; Class-incremental Learning with Topological Schematic Model

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Class-incremental learning (CIL) aims to incrementally learn a unified classifier for new classes emerging, which suffers from the catastrophic forgetting problem. To alleviate forgetting and improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel CIL framework, named the topological schemas model (TSM). TSM consists of a Gaussian mixture model arranged on 2D grids (2D-GMM) as the memory of the learned knowledge. To train the 2D-GMM model, we develop a novel competitive expectation-maximization (CEM) method, which contains a global topology embedding step and a local expectation-maximization finetuning step. Meanwhile, we choose the image samples of old classes that have the maximum posterior probability with respect to each Gaussian distribution as the episodic points. When finetuning for new classes, we propose the memory preservation loss (MPL) term to ensure episodic points still have maximum probabilities with respect to the corresponding Gaussian distribution. MPL preserves the distribution of 2D-GMM for old knowledge during incremental learning and alleviates catastrophic forgetting. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on two popular CIL benchmarks CIFAR100 and subImageNet demonstrate the superiority of our TSM.

Cc-Loss: Channel Correlation Loss for Image Classification

Zeyu Song, Dongliang Chang, Zhanyu Ma, Li Xiaoxu, Zheng-Hua Tan
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; Channel correlation loss for ad- dressing image classification

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The loss function is a key component in deep learning models. A commonly used loss function for classification is the cross-entropy loss, which is simple yet effective application of information theory for classification problems. Based on this loss, many other loss functions have been proposed, e.g., by adding intra-class and inter-class constraints to enhance the discriminative the ability of the learned features. However, these loss functions fail to consider the connections between the feature distribution and the model structure. Aiming at ad- dressing this problem, we propose a channel correlation loss (CC-Loss) that is able to constrain the specific relations between classes and channels as well as maintain the intra- and the inter-class separability. CC-Loss uses a channel attention module to generate channel attention of features for each sample in the training stage. Next, an Euclidean distance matrix is calculated to make the channel attention vectors associated with the same class become identical and to increase the difference between different classes. Finally, we obtain a feature embedding with good intra-class compactness and inter- class separability. Experimental results show that two different backbone models trained with the proposed CC-Loss outperform the state-of-the-art loss functions on three image classification datasets.

Deep Convolutional Embedding for Digitized Painting Clustering

Giovanna Castellano, Gennaro Vessio
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; A Deep Convolutional Embedding Model for Clustering Artworks

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Clustering artworks is difficult because of several reasons. On one hand, recognizing meaningful patterns in accordance with domain knowledge and visual perception is extremely hard. On the other hand, the application of traditional clustering and feature reduction techniques to the highly dimensional pixel space can be ineffective. To address these issues, we propose to use a deep convolutional embedding model for digitized painting clustering, in which the task of mapping the input raw data to an abstract, latent space is jointly optimized with the task of finding a set of cluster centroids in this latent feature space. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The model is also able to outperform other state-of-the-art deep clustering approaches to the same problem. The proposed method may be beneficial to several art-related tasks, particularly visual link retrieval and historical knowledge discovery in painting datasets.

Improved Deep Classwise Hashing with Centers Similarity Learning for Image Retrieval

Ming Zhang, Hong Yan
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T3.9

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Classwise Hashing for Image Retrieval Using Center Similarity Learning

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Deep supervised hashing for image retrieval has attracted researchers' attention due to its high efficiency and superior retrieval performance. Most existing deep supervised hashing works, which are based on pairwise/triplet labels, suffer from the expensive computational cost and insufficient utilization of the semantics information. Recently, deep classwise hashing introduced a classwise loss supervised by class labels information alternatively; however, we find it still has its drawback. In this paper, we propose an improved deep classwise hashing, which enables hashing learning and class centers learning simultaneously. Specifically, we design a two-step strategy on center similarity learning. It interacts with the classwise loss to attract the class center to concentrate on the intra-class samples while pushing other class centers as far as possible. The centers similarity learning contributes to generating more compact and discriminative hashing codes. We conduct experiments on three benchmark datasets. It shows that the proposed method effectively surpasses the original method and outperforms state-of-the-art baselines under various commonly-used evaluation metrics for image retrieval.

Contextual Classification Using Self-Supervised Auxiliary Models for Deep Neural Networks

Sebastian Palacio, Philipp Engler, Jörn Hees, Andreas Dengel
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.8

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Auto-TLDR; Self-Supervised Autogenous Learning for Deep Neural Networks

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Classification problems solved with deep neural networks (DNNs) typically rely on a closed world paradigm, and optimize over a single objective (e.g., minimization of the cross- entropy loss). This setup dismisses all kinds of supporting signals that can be used to reinforce the existence or absence of particular patterns. The increasing need for models that are interpretable by design makes the inclusion of said contextual signals a crucial necessity. To this end, we introduce the notion of Self-Supervised Autogenous Learning (SSAL). A SSAL objective is realized through one or more additional targets that are derived from the original supervised classification task, following architectural principles found in multi-task learning. SSAL branches impose low-level priors into the optimization process (e.g., grouping). The ability of using SSAL branches during inference, allow models to converge faster, focusing on a richer set of class-relevant features. We equip state-of-the-art DNNs with SSAL objectives and report consistent improvements for all of them on CIFAR100 and Imagenet. We show that SSAL models outperform similar state-of-the-art methods focused on contextual loss functions, auxiliary branches and hierarchical priors.

Semi-Supervised Class Incremental Learning

Alexis Lechat, Stéphane Herbin, Frederic Jurie
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; incremental class learning with non-annotated batches

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This paper makes a contribution to the problem of incremental class learning, the principle of which is to sequentially introduce batches of samples annotated with new classes during the learning phase. The main objective is to reduce the drop in classification performance on old classes, a phenomenon commonly called catastrophic forgetting. We propose in this paper a new method which exploits the availability of a large quantity of non-annotated images in addition to the annotated batches. These images are used to regularize the classifier and give the feature space a more stable structure. We demonstrate on several image data sets that our approach is able to improve the global performance of classifiers learned using an incremental learning protocol, even with annotated batches of small size.

Towards Robust Learning with Different Label Noise Distributions

Diego Ortego, Eric Arazo, Paul Albert, Noel E O'Connor, Kevin Mcguinness
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.2

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Auto-TLDR; Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling with Semi-supervised Learning

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Noisy labels are an unavoidable consequence of labeling processes and detecting them is an important step towards preventing performance degradations in Convolutional Neural Networks. Discarding noisy labels avoids a harmful memorization, while the associated image content can still be exploited in a semi-supervised learning (SSL) setup. Clean samples are usually identified using the small loss trick, i.e. they exhibit a low loss. However, we show that different noise distributions make the application of this trick less straightforward and propose to continuously relabel all images to reveal a discriminative loss against multiple distributions. SSL is then applied twice, once to improve the clean-noisy detection and again for training the final model. We design an experimental setup based on ImageNet32/64 for better understanding the consequences of representation learning with differing label noise distributions and find that non-uniform out-of-distribution noise better resembles real-world noise and that in most cases intermediate features are not affected by label noise corruption. Experiments in CIFAR-10/100, ImageNet32/64 and WebVision (real-world noise) demonstrate that the proposed label noise Distribution Robust Pseudo-Labeling (DRPL) approach gives substantial improvements over recent state-of-the-art. Code will be made available.

Local Clustering with Mean Teacher for Semi-Supervised Learning

Zexi Chen, Benjamin Dutton, Bharathkumar Ramachandra, Tianfu Wu, Ranga Raju Vatsavai
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Local Clustering for Semi-supervised Learning

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The Mean Teacher (MT) model of Tarvainen and Valpola has shown favorable performance on several semi-supervised benchmark datasets. MT maintains a teacher model's weights as the exponential moving average of a student model's weights and minimizes the divergence between their probability predictions under diverse perturbations of the inputs. However, MT is known to suffer from confirmation bias, that is, reinforcing incorrect teacher model predictions. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective method called Local Clustering (LC) to mitigate the effect of confirmation bias. In MT, each data point is considered independent of other points during training; however, data points are likely to be close to each other in feature space if they share similar features. Motivated by this, we cluster data points locally by minimizing the pairwise distance between neighboring data points in feature space. Combined with a standard classification cross-entropy objective on labeled data points, the misclassified unlabeled data points are pulled towards high-density regions of their correct class with the help of their neighbors, thus improving model performance. We demonstrate on semi-supervised benchmark datasets SVHN and CIFAR-10 that adding our LC loss to MT yields significant improvements compared to MT and performance comparable to the state of the art in semi-supervised learning.

Learning Embeddings for Image Clustering: An Empirical Study of Triplet Loss Approaches

Kalun Ho, Janis Keuper, Franz-Josef Pfreundt, Margret Keuper
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.1

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Auto-TLDR; Clustering Objectives for K-means and Correlation Clustering Using Triplet Loss

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In this work, we evaluate two different image clustering objectives, k-means clustering and correlation clustering, in the context of Triplet Loss induced feature space embeddings. Specifically, we train a convolutional neural network to learn discriminative features by optimizing two popular versions of the Triplet Loss in order to study their clustering properties under the assumption of noisy labels. Additionally, we propose a new, simple Triplet Loss formulation, which shows desirable properties with respect to formal clustering objectives and outperforms the existing methods. We evaluate all three Triplet loss formulations for K-means and correlation clustering on the CIFAR-10 image classification dataset.

Temporally Coherent Embeddings for Self-Supervised Video Representation Learning

Joshua Knights, Ben Harwood, Daniel Ward, Anthony Vanderkop, Olivia Mackenzie-Ross, Peyman Moghadam
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.4

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Auto-TLDR; Temporally Coherent Embeddings for Self-supervised Video Representation Learning

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This paper presents TCE: Temporally Coherent Embeddings for self-supervised video representation learning. The proposed method exploits inherent structure of unlabeled video data to explicitly enforce temporal coherency in the embedding space, rather than indirectly learning it through ranking or predictive proxy tasks. In the same way that high-level visual information in the world changes smoothly, we believe that nearby frames in learned representations will benefit from demonstrating similar properties. Using this assumption, we train our TCE model to encode videos such that adjacent frames exist close to each other and videos are separated from one another. Using TCE we learn robust representations from large quantities of unlabeled video data. We thoroughly analyse and evaluate our self-supervised learned TCE models on a downstream task of video action recognition using multiple challenging benchmarks (Kinetics400, UCF101, HMDB51). With a simple but effective 2D-CNN backbone and only RGB stream inputs, TCE pre-trained representations outperform all previous self-supervised 2D-CNN and 3D-CNN trained on UCF101. The code and pre-trained models for this paper can be downloaded at: https://github.com/csiro-robotics/TCE

Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation Via Selective Pseudo Labeling and Progressive Self-Training

Yoonhyung Kim, Changick Kim
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.13

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Auto-TLDR; Semi-supervised Domain Adaptation with Pseudo Labels

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Domain adaptation (DA) is a representation learning methodology that transfers knowledge from a label-sufficient source domain to a label-scarce target domain. While most of early methods are focused on unsupervised DA (UDA), several studies on semi-supervised DA (SSDA) are recently suggested. In SSDA, a small number of labeled target images are given for training, and the effectiveness of those data is demonstrated by the previous studies. However, the previous SSDA approaches solely adopt those data for embedding ordinary supervised losses, overlooking the potential usefulness of the few yet informative clues. Based on this observation, in this paper, we propose a novel method that further exploits the labeled target images for SSDA. Specifically, we utilize labeled target images to selectively generate pseudo labels for unlabeled target images. In addition, based on the observation that pseudo labels are inevitably noisy, we apply a label noise-robust learning scheme, which progressively updates the network and the set of pseudo labels by turns. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms other previous state-of-the-art SSDA methods.

Rethinking of Deep Models Parameters with Respect to Data Distribution

Shitala Prasad, Dongyun Lin, Yiqun Li, Sheng Dong, Zaw Min Oo
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; A progressive stepwise training strategy for deep neural networks

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The performance of deep learning models are driven by various parameters but to tune all of them every time, for every dataset, is a heuristic practice. In this paper, unlike the common practice of decaying the learning rate, we propose a step-wise training strategy where the learning rate and the batch size are tuned based on the dataset size. Here, the given dataset size is progressively increased during the training to boost the network performance without saturating the learning curve, after certain epochs. We conducted extensive experiments on multiple networks and datasets to validate the proposed training strategy. The experimental results proves our hypothesis that the learning rate, the batch size and the data size are interrelated and can improve the network accuracy if an optimal progressive stepwise training strategy is applied. The proposed strategy also the overall training computational cost is reduced.

Heterogeneous Graph-Based Knowledge Transfer for Generalized Zero-Shot Learning

Junjie Wang, Xiangfeng Wang, Bo Jin, Junchi Yan, Wenjie Zhang, Hongyuan Zha
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Heterogeneous Graph-based Knowledge Transfer for Generalized Zero-Shot Learning

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Generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) tackles the problem of learning to classify instances involving both seen classes and unseen ones. The key issue is how to effectively transfer the model learned from seen classes to unseen classes. Existing works in GZSL usually assume that some prior information about unseen classes are available. However, such an assumption is unrealistic when new unseen classes appear dynamically. To this end, we propose a novel heterogeneous graph-based knowledge transfer method (HGKT) for GZSL, agnostic to unseen classes and instances, by leveraging graph neural network. Specifically, a structured heterogeneous graph is constructed with high-level representative nodes for seen classes, which are chosen through Wasserstein barycenter in order to simultaneously capture inter-class and intra-class relationship. The aggregation and embedding functions can be learned throughgraph neural network, which can be used to compute the embeddings of unseen classes by transferring the knowledge from their neighbors. Extensive experiments on public benchmark datasets show that our method achieves state-of-the-art results.

The Color Out of Space: Learning Self-Supervised Representations for Earth Observation Imagery

Stefano Vincenzi, Angelo Porrello, Pietro Buzzega, Marco Cipriano, Pietro Fronte, Roberto Cuccu, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Simone Calderara
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.14

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Auto-TLDR; Satellite Image Representation Learning for Remote Sensing

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The recent growth in the number of satellite images fosters the development of effective deep-learning techniques for Remote Sensing (RS). However, their full potential is untapped due to the lack of large annotated datasets. Such a problem is usually countered by fine-tuning a feature extractor that is previously trained on the ImageNet dataset. Unfortunately, the domain of natural images differs from the RS one, which hinders the final performance. In this work, we propose to learn meaningful representations from satellite imagery, leveraging its high-dimensionality spectral bands to reconstruct the visible colors. We conduct experiments on land cover classification (BigEarthNet) and West Nile Virus detection, showing that colorization is a solid pretext task for training a feature extractor. Furthermore, we qualitatively observe that guesses based on natural images and colorization rely on different parts of the input. This paves the way to an ensemble model that eventually outperforms both the above-mentioned techniques.

Enlarging Discriminative Power by Adding an Extra Class in Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Hai Tran, Sumyeong Ahn, Taeyoung Lee, Yung Yi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation using Artificial Classes

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We study the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation that aims at obtaining a prediction model for the target domain using labeled data from the source domain and unlabeled data from the target domain. There exists an array of recent research based on the idea of extracting features that are not only invariant for both domains but also provide high discriminative power for the target domain. In this paper, we propose an idea of improving the discriminativeness: Adding an extra artificial class and training the model on the given data together with the GAN-generated samples of the new class. The trained model based on the new class samples is capable of extracting the features that are more discriminative by repositioning data of current classes in the target domain and therefore increasing the distances among the target clusters in the feature space. Our idea is highly generic so that it is compatible with many existing methods such as DANN, VADA, and DIRT-T. We conduct various experiments for the standard data commonly used for the evaluation of unsupervised domain adaptations and demonstrate that our algorithm achieves the SOTA performance for many scenarios.

JECL: Joint Embedding and Cluster Learning for Image-Text Pairs

Sean Yang, Kuan-Hao Huang, Bill Howe
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 16:30 in session PS T1.7

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Auto-TLDR; JECL: Clustering Image-Caption Pairs with Parallel Encoders and Regularized Clusters

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We propose JECL, a method for clustering image-caption pairs by training parallel encoders with regularized clustering and alignment objectives, simultaneously learning both representations and cluster assignments. These image-caption pairs arise frequently in high-value applications where structured training data is expensive to produce, but free-text descriptions are common. JECL trains by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distribution of the images and text to that of a combined joint target distribution and optimizing the Jensen-Shannon divergence between the soft cluster assignments of the images and text. Regularizers are also applied to JECL to prevent trivial solutions. Experiments show that JECL outperforms both single-view and multi-view methods on large benchmark image-caption datasets, and is remarkably robust to missing captions and varying data sizes.

Multi-Scale Cascading Network with Compact Feature Learning for RGB-Infrared Person Re-Identification

Can Zhang, Hong Liu, Wei Guo, Mang Ye
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T5.3

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-Scale Part-Aware Cascading for RGB-Infrared Person Re-identification

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RGB-Infrared person re-identification (RGB-IR Re-ID) aims to matching persons from heterogeneous images captured by visible and thermal cameras, which is of great significance in surveillance system under poor light conditions. Facing great challenges in complex variances including conventional single-modality and additional inter-modality discrepancies, most of existing RGB-IR Re-ID methods directly work on global features for simultaneous elimination, whereas modality-specific noises and modality-shared features are not well considered. To address these issues, a novel Multi-Scale Part-Aware Cascading framework (MSPAC) is formulated by aggregating multi-scale fine-grained features from part to global in a cascading manner, which results in an unified representation robust to noises. Moreover, a marginal exponential center (MeCen) loss is introduced to jointly eliminate mixed variances, which enables to model cross-modality correlations on sharable salient features. Extensive experiments are conducted for demonstration that the proposed method outperforms all the state-of-the-arts by a large margin.

Revisiting ImprovedGAN with Metric Learning for Semi-Supervised Learning

Jaewoo Park, Yoon Gyo Jung, Andrew Teoh
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; Improving ImprovedGAN with Metric Learning for Semi-supervised Learning

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Semi-supervised Learning (SSL) is a classical problem where a model needs to solve classification as it is trained on a partially labeled train data. After the introduction of generative adversarial network (GAN) and its success, the model has been modified to be applicable to SSL. ImprovedGAN as a representative model for GAN-based SSL, it showed promising performance on the SSL problem. However, the inner mechanism of this model has been only partially revealed. In this work, we revisit ImprovedGAN with a fresh perspective based on metric learning. In particular, we interpret ImprovedGAN by general pair weighting, a recent framework in metric learning. Based on this interpretation, we derive two theoretical properties of ImprovedGAN: (i) its discriminator learns to make confident predictions over real samples, (ii) the adversarial interaction in ImprovedGAN along with semi-supervision results in cluster separation by reducing intra-class variance and increasing the inter-class variance, thereby improving the model generalization. These theoretical implications are experimentally supported. Motivated by the findings, we propose a variant of ImprovedGAN, called Intensified ImprovedGAN (I2GAN), where its cluster separation characteristic is enhanced by two proposed techniques: (a) the unsupervised discriminator loss is scaled up and (b) the generated batch size is enlarged. As a result, I2GAN produces better class-wise cluster separation and, hence, generalization. Extensive experiments on the widely known benchmark data sets verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, showing that its performance is better than or comparable to other GAN based SSL models.

Deep Superpixel Cut for Unsupervised Image Segmentation

Qinghong Lin, Weichan Zhong
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T5.3

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Auto-TLDR; Deep Superpixel Cut for Deep Unsupervised Image Segmentation

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Image segmentation, one of the most critical vision tasks, has been studied for many years. Most of the early algorithms are unsupervised methods, which use hand-crafted features to divide the image into many regions. Recently, owing to the great success of deep learning technology, CNNs based methods showing superior performance in image segmentation. However, these methods rely on a large number of human annotations, which are expensive to collect. In this paper, we propose a deep unsupervised method for image segmentation, which borrowed the ideas of classical graph partitioning. Our approach contains the following two stages. First, a Superpixel Guided Autoencoder (SGAE) is designed to learn the deep embedding and smooth the image simultaneously, then the smoothed image passed to generate superpixels. Second, based on the learned embedding, we propose a novel segmentation algorithm called Deep Superpixel Cut(DSC), which measures the deep similarity between superpixels and then adaptively partitions the superpixels into perceptual regions. Experimental results on the BSDS500 dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

Self-Training for Domain Adaptive Scene Text Detection

Yudi Chen, Wei Wang, Yu Zhou, Fei Yang, Dongbao Yang, Weiping Wang
Track 4: Document and Media Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 13:00 in session OS T 4.2

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Auto-TLDR; A self-training framework for image-based scene text detection

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Though deep learning based scene text detection has achieved great progress, well-trained detectors suffer from severe performance degradation for different domains. In general, a tremendous amount of data is indispensable to train the detector in the target domain. However, data collection and annotation are expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, we propose a self-training framework to automatically mine hard examples with pseudo-labels from unannotated videos or images. To reduce the noise of hard examples, a novel text mining module is implemented based on the fusion of detection and tracking results. Then, an image-to-video generation method is designed for the tasks that videos are unavailable and only images can be used. Experimental results on standard benchmarks, including ICDAR2015, MSRA-TD500, ICDAR2017 MLT, demonstrate the effectiveness of our self-training method. The simple Mask R-CNN adapted with self-training and fine-tuned on real data can achieve comparable or even superior results with the state-of-the-art methods.

Dual-Attention Guided Dropblock Module for Weakly Supervised Object Localization

Junhui Yin, Siqing Zhang, Dongliang Chang, Zhanyu Ma, Jun Guo
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T1.6

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Auto-TLDR; Dual-Attention Guided Dropblock for Weakly Supervised Object Localization

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Attention mechanisms is frequently used to learn the discriminative features for better feature representations. In this paper, we extend the attention mechanism to the task of weakly supervised object localization (WSOL) and propose the dual-attention guided dropblock module (DGDM), which aims at learning the informative and complementary visual patterns for WSOL. This module contains two key components, the channel attention guided dropout (CAGD) and the spatial attention guided dropblock (SAGD). To model channel interdependencies, the CAGD ranks the channel attentions and treats the top-k attentions with the largest magnitudes as the important ones. It also keeps some low-valued elements to increase their value if they become important during training. The SAGD can efficiently remove the most discriminative information by erasing the contiguous regions of feature maps rather than individual pixels. This guides the model to capture the less discriminative parts for classification. Furthermore, it can also distinguish the foreground objects from the background regions to alleviate the attention misdirection. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves new state-of-the-art localization performance.

A Self-Supervised GAN for Unsupervised Few-Shot Object Recognition

Khoi Nguyen, Sinisa Todorovic
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 17:00 in session PS T3.2

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Few-Shot Object Recognition with a Triplet GAN

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This paper addresses unsupervised few-shot object recognition, where all training images are unlabeled, and test images are divided into queries and a few labeled support images per object class of interest. The training and test images do not share object classes. We extend the vanilla GAN with two loss functions, both aimed at self-supervised learning. The first is a reconstruction loss that enforces the discriminator to reconstruct the probabilistically sampled latent code which has been used for generating the "fake" image. The second is a triplet loss that enforces the discriminator to output image encodings that are closer for more similar images. Evaluation, comparisons, and detailed ablation studies are done in the context of few-shot classification. Our approach significantly outperforms the state of the art on the Mini-Imagenet and Tiered-Imagenet datasets.

P-DIFF: Learning Classifier with Noisy Labels Based on Probability Difference Distributions

Wei Hu, Qihao Zhao, Yangyu Huang, Fan Zhang
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Wed 13 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.4

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Auto-TLDR; P-DIFF: A Simple and Effective Training Paradigm for Deep Neural Network Classifier with Noisy Labels

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Learning deep neural network (DNN) classifier with noisy labels is a challenging task because the DNN can easily over- fit on these noisy labels due to its high capability. In this paper, we present a very simple but effective training paradigm called P-DIFF, which can train DNN classifiers but obviously alleviate the adverse impact of noisy labels. Our proposed probability difference distribution implicitly reflects the probability of a training sample to be clean, then this probability is employed to re-weight the corresponding sample during the training process. P-DIFF can also achieve good performance even without prior- knowledge on the noise rate of training samples. Experiments on benchmark datasets also demonstrate that P-DIFF is superior to the state-of-the-art sample selection methods.

Local Propagation for Few-Shot Learning

Yann Lifchitz, Yannis Avrithis, Sylvaine Picard
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.16

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Auto-TLDR; Local Propagation for Few-Shot Inference

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The challenge in few-shot learning is that available data is not enough to capture the underlying distribution. To mitigate this, two emerging directions are (a) using local image representations, essentially multiplying the amount of data by a constant factor, and (b) using more unlabeled data, for instance by transductive inference, jointly on a number of queries. In this work, we bring these two ideas together, introducing local propagation. We treat local image features as independent examples, we build a graph on them and we use it to propagate both the features themselves and the labels, known and unknown. Interestingly, since there is a number of features per image, even a single query gives rise to transductive inference. As a result, we provide a universally safe choice for few-shot inference under both non-transductive and transductive settings, improving accuracy over corresponding methods. This is in contrast to existing solutions, where one needs to choose the method depending on the quantity of available data.

N2D: (Not Too) Deep Clustering Via Clustering the Local Manifold of an Autoencoded Embedding

Ryan Mcconville, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Robert Piechocki, Ian Craddock
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Local Manifold Learning for Deep Clustering on Autoencoded Embeddings

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Deep clustering has increasingly been demonstrating superiority over conventional shallow clustering algorithms. Deep clustering algorithms usually combine representation learning with deep neural networks to achieve this performance, typically optimizing a clustering and non-clustering loss. In such cases, an autoencoder is typically connected with a clustering network, and the final clustering is jointly learned by both the autoencoder and clustering network. Instead, we propose to learn an autoencoded embedding and then search this further for the underlying manifold. For simplicity, we then cluster this with a shallow clustering algorithm, rather than a deeper network. We study a number of local and global manifold learning methods on both the raw data and autoencoded embedding, concluding that UMAP in our framework is able to find the best clusterable manifold of the embedding. This suggests that local manifold learning on an autoencoded embedding is effective for discovering higher quality clusters. We quantitatively show across a range of image and time-series datasets that our method has competitive performance against the latest deep clustering algorithms, including out-performing current state-of-the-art on several. We postulate that these results show a promising research direction for deep clustering. The code can be found at https://github.com/rymc/n2d.

WeightAlign: Normalizing Activations by Weight Alignment

Xiangwei Shi, Yunqiang Li, Xin Liu, Jan Van Gemert
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T1.9

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Auto-TLDR; WeightAlign: Normalization of Activations without Sample Statistics

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Batch normalization (BN) allows training very deep networks by normalizing activations by mini-batch sample statistics which renders BN unstable for small batch sizes. Current small-batch solutions such as Instance Norm, Layer Norm, and Group Norm use channel statistics which can be computed even for a single sample. Such methods are less stable than BN as they critically depend on the statistics of a single input sample. To address this problem, we propose a normalization of activation without sample statistics. We present WeightAlign: a method that normalizes the weights by the mean and scaled standard derivation computed within a filter, which normalizes activations without computing any sample statistics. Our proposed method is independent of batch size and stable over a wide range of batch sizes. Because weight statistics are orthogonal to sample statistics, we can directly combine WeightAlign with any method for activation normalization. We experimentally demonstrate these benefits for classification on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, ImageNet, for semantic segmentation on PASCAL VOC 2012 and for domain adaptation on Office-31.

A Unified Framework for Distance-Aware Domain Adaptation

Fei Wang, Youdong Ding, Huan Liang, Yuzhen Gao, Wenqi Che
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T1.1

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Auto-TLDR; distance-aware domain adaptation

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Unsupervised domain adaptation has achieved significant results by leveraging knowledge from a source domain to learn a related but unlabeled target domain. Previous methods are insufficient to model domain discrepancy and class discrepancy, which may lead to misalignment and poor adaptation performance. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a unified framework, called distance-aware domain adaptation, which is fully aware of both cross-domain distance and class-discriminative distance. In addition, second-order statistics distance and manifold alignment are also exploited to extract more information from data. In this manner, the generalization error of the target domain in classification problems can be reduced substantially. To validate the proposed method, we conducted experiments on five public datasets and an ablation study. The results demonstrate the good performance of our proposed method.

Parallel Network to Learn Novelty from the Known

Shuaiyuan Du, Chaoyi Hong, Zhiyu Pan, Chen Feng, Zhiguo Cao
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session PS T3.8

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Auto-TLDR; Trainable Parallel Network for Pseudo-Novel Detection

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Towards multi-class novelty detection, we propose an end-to-end trainable Parallel Network (PN) using no additional data but only the training set itself. Our key idea is to first divide the training set into successive subtasks of pseudo-novelty detection to simulate real scenarios. We then design a multi-branch PN to well address the fine-grained division, which yields a compressed and more discriminative classification space and forms a natural ensemble. In practice, we divide the training data into subsets consisting of known and pseudo-novel classes. Each subset forms a sub-task fed to one branch in PN. During training, both known and pseudo-novel classes are uniformly distributed over the branches for better data balance and model diversity. By distinguishing between the known and the diverse pseudo-novel, PN extracts the concept of novelty in a compressed classification space. This provides PN with generalization ability to real novel classes which are absent during training. During online inference, this ability is further strengthened with the ensemble of PN's multiple branches. Experiments on three public datasets show our method's superiority to the mainstream methods.

Energy-Constrained Self-Training for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Xiaofeng Liu, Xiongchang Liu, Bo Hu, Jun Lu, Jonghye Woo, Jane You
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 16:00 in session PS T1.12

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Auto-TLDR; Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Energy Function Minimization

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Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) aims to transfer the knowledge on a labeled source domain distribution to perform well on an unlabeled target domain. Recently, the deep self-training involves an iterative process of predicting on the target domain and then taking the confident predictions as hard pseudo-labels for retraining. However, the pseudo-labels are usually unreliable, and easily leading to deviated solutions with propagated errors. In this paper, we resort to the energy-based model and constrain the training of the unlabeled target sample with the energy function minimization objective. It can be applied as a simple additional regularization. In this framework, it is possible to gain the benefits of the energy-based model, while retaining strong discriminative performance following a plug-and-play fashion. The convergence property and its connection with classification expectation minimization are investigated. We deliver extensive experiments on the most popular and large scale UDA benchmarks of image classification as well as semantic segmentation to demonstrate its generality and effectiveness.

Single-Modal Incremental Terrain Clustering from Self-Supervised Audio-Visual Feature Learning

Reina Ishikawa, Ryo Hachiuma, Akiyoshi Kurobe, Hideo Saito
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T3.10

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Auto-TLDR; Multi-modal Variational Autoencoder for Terrain Type Clustering

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The key to an accurate understanding of terrain is to extract the informative features from the multi-modal data obtained from different devices. Sensors, such as RGB cameras, depth sensors, vibration sensors, and microphones, are used as the multi-modal data. Many studies have explored ways to use them, especially in the robotics field. Some papers have successfully introduced single-modal or multi-modal methods. However, in practice, robots can be faced with extreme conditions; microphones do not work well in the crowded scenes, and an RGB camera cannot capture terrains well in the dark. In this paper, we present a novel framework using the multi-modal variational autoencoder and the Gaussian mixture model clustering algorithm on image data and audio data for terrain type clustering. Our method enables the terrain type clustering even if one of the modalities (either image or audio) is missing at the test-time. We evaluated the clustering accuracy with a conventional multi-modal terrain type clustering method and we conducted ablation studies to show the effectiveness of our approach.

Joint Supervised and Self-Supervised Learning for 3D Real World Challenges

Antonio Alliegro, Davide Boscaini, Tatiana Tommasi
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session OS T1.3

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervision for 3D Shape Classification and Segmentation in Point Clouds

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Point cloud processing and 3D shape understanding are very challenging tasks for which deep learning techniques have demonstrated great potentials. Still further progresses are essential to allow artificial intelligent agents to interact with the real world. In many practical conditions the amount of annotated data may be limited and integrating new sources of knowledge becomes crucial to support autonomous learning. Here we consider several scenarios involving synthetic and real world point clouds where supervised learning fails due to data scarcity and large domain gaps. We propose to enrich standard feature representations by leveraging self-supervision through a multi-task model that can solve a 3D puzzle while learning the main task of shape classification or part segmentation. An extensive analysis investigating few-shot, transfer learning and cross-domain settings shows the effectiveness of our approach with state-of-the-art results for 3D shape classification and part segmentation.

SSDL: Self-Supervised Domain Learning for Improved Face Recognition

Samadhi Poornima Kumarasinghe Wickrama Arachchilage, Ebroul Izquierdo
Track 2: Biometrics, Human Analysis and Behavior Understanding
Fri 15 Jan 2021 at 15:00 in session PS T2.5

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Domain Learning for Face Recognition in unconstrained environments

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Face recognition in unconstrained environments is challenging due to variations in illumination, quality of sensing, motion blur and etc. An individual’s face appearance can vary drastically under different conditions creating a gap between train (source) and varying test (target) data. The domain gap could cause decreased performance levels in direct knowledge transfer from source to target. Despite fine-tuning with domain specific data could be an effective solution, collecting and annotating data for all domains is extremely expensive. To this end, we propose a self-supervised domain learning (SSDL) scheme that trains on triplets mined from unlabelled data. A key factor in effective discriminative learning, is selecting informative triplets. Building on most confident predictions, we follow an “easy-to-hard” scheme of alternate triplet mining and self-learning. Comprehensive experiments on four different benchmarks show that SSDL generalizes well on different domains.

Joint Semantic-Instance Segmentation of 3D Point Clouds: Instance Separation and Semantic Fusion

Min Zhong, Gang Zeng
Track 3: Computer Vision Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 12:00 in session PS T3.7

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Auto-TLDR; Joint Semantic Segmentation and Instance Separation of 3D Point Clouds

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This paper introduces an approach for jointly addressing semantic segmentation (SS) and instance segmentation (IS) of 3D point clouds. Two novel modules are designed to model the interplay between SS and IS. Specifically, we develop an Instance Separation Module that supplements the position-invariance semantic feature with the instance-specific centroid position to help separate different instances. To fuse the semantic information within a single instance, an attention-based Semantic Fusion Module is proposed to encode attention maps in the instance embedding space, which are applied to fuse semantic information in the semantic feature space. The proposed method is thoroughly evaluated on the S3DIS dataset. Compared with the excellent method ASIS, our approach achieves significant improvements across all evaluation metrics in both IS and SS.

Free-Form Image Inpainting Via Contrastive Attention Network

Xin Ma, Xiaoqiang Zhou, Huaibo Huang, Zhenhua Chai, Xiaolin Wei, Ran He
Track 5: Image and Signal Processing
Tue 12 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T5.1

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Auto-TLDR; Self-supervised Siamese inference for image inpainting

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Most deep learning based image inpainting approaches adopt autoencoder or its variants to fill missing regions in images. Encoders are usually utilized to learn powerful representational spaces, which are important for dealing with sophisticated learning tasks. Specifically, in the image inpainting task, masks with any shapes can appear anywhere in images (i.e., free-form masks) forming complex patterns. It is difficult for encoders to capture such powerful representations under this complex situation. To tackle this problem, we propose a self-supervised Siamese inference network to improve the robustness and generalization. Moreover, the restored image usually can not be harmoniously integrated into the exiting content, especially in the boundary area. To address this problem, we propose a novel Dual Attention Fusion module (DAF), which can combine both the restored and known regions in a smoother way and be inserted into decoder layers in a plug-and-play way. DAF is developed to not only adaptively rescale channel-wise features by taking interdependencies between channels into account but also force deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) focusing more on unknown regions. In this way, the unknown region will be naturally filled from the outside to the inside. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on multiple datasets, including facial and natural datasets (i.e., Celeb-HQ, Pairs Street View, Places2 and ImageNet), demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms against state-of-the-arts in generating high-quality inpainting results.

Incrementally Zero-Shot Detection by an Extreme Value Analyzer

Sixiao Zheng, Yanwei Fu, Yanxi Hou
Track 1: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning for Pattern Analysis
Thu 14 Jan 2021 at 14:00 in session OS T1.5

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Auto-TLDR; IZSD-EVer: Incremental Zero-Shot Detection for Incremental Learning

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Human beings not only have the ability of recogniz-ing novel unseen classes, but also can incrementally incorporatethe new classes to existing knowledge preserved. However, thezero-shot learning models assume that all seen classes should beknown beforehand, while incremental learning models cannotrecognize unseen classes. This paper introduces a novel andchallenging task of Incrementally Zero-Shot Detection (IZSD),a practical strategy for both zero-shot learning and class-incremental learning in real-world object detection. An innovativeend-to-end model – IZSD-EVer was proposed to tackle this taskthat requires incrementally detecting new classes and detectingthe classes that have never been seen. Specifically, we proposea novel extreme value analyzer to simultaneously detect objectsfrom old seen, new seen, and unseen classes. Additionally andtechnically, we propose two innovative losses, i.e., background-foreground mean squared error loss alleviating the extremeimbalance of the background and foreground of images, andprojection distance loss aligning the visual space and semanticspaces of old seen classes. Experiments demonstrate the efficacyof our model in detecting objects from both the seen and unseenclasses, outperforming the alternative models on Pascal VOC andMSCOCO datasets.